ANT 160, week 6 of notes
ANT 160, week 6 of notes ANT 160
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneissa Coulter on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 11 Outline ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Kinship and Marriage •Structuralism: Claude LéviStrauss (19082009) • “The elementary structures of kinship” (1969), “The raw and the cooked” (1969), “The savage mind” (1966). •Culture is a surface representation of underlying mental structures. These structures are affected by the physical and social environment. On the surface people’s belief systems can appear to be very different. However, the structure of their belief systems is similar from one group to another. For example, incest taboo is the cornerstone of the structures found in marriage rules. •Kinship: the allocation of rights and their transmission from one generation to the next. These rights are as diverse as, for example, group membership, succession to office, inheritance of property, locality of residence, types of occupation, and other cultural aspects. •Kinship is the study of how people classify others around them and how they classify kin relations. Classificatory Terminology •Primary Kin Types: Father Mother Husband Wife Brother Sister Son Daughter •Nuclear family: A unit consisting typically of a married man and woman with their offspring. Marriage: Theory of Alliance or Principles of Reciprocity •Monogamy: the marriage of one person to another person •Polygamy: multiple marriages. •Polygyny: the marriage of one man to two or more women at the same time •Polyandry: the marriage of one woman to two or more men at the same time •Serial monogamy: multiple marriages through time. 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 11 Outline ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Marriage as exchange •Generalized exchange: relationships between any number of partners. •Restricted exchange: a mechanism of reciprocity that operates only between two partners or between partners in multiples of two. Example: cross cousin marriage and moieties. •The cousins who are in the (+) relationship are cross cousins; those who are in the (++) or () relationship are parallel cousins. •Dowry: the property endowment which a bride brings with her into her husband’s domestic household at the time of marriage •Bridewealth or brideprice: payments from the husband and his kin to the kin of the bride •Bride service: payment in work, for a time to the kin of the bride •Levirate: a man marries his brothers widow •Sororate: a woman marries her sisters widower •Preferred marriage. •Prescribed marriage. Marriage residence •Rules of exogamy: marriage rules that require a person to marry outside locale, kin, status, or other such groups to which the person belongs: example village exogamy, moieties •Rules of endogamy: marriage rules that require a person to marry inside the locale, kin, status, or other such groups to which the person belongs: example caste endogamy •Patrilocal or virilocal: a norm which requires the bride to reside with the groom either nearby to or in the home of the groom’s parents •Matrilocal or Uxorilocal: a norm which requires the groom to leave his paternal home to live with his bride, either nearby to or in the house of her parents •Avunculocal residence: a norm in which unmarried males leave their parent’s home to reside with their mother’s brother; upon marriage their wives are brought into this household. •Ambilocal residence: married partners may live with either the husband’s or wife’s group. 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 11 Outline ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World •Neolocal: the establishment of an independent household For more indepth information see: LéviStrauss, Claude 1969 The elementary structures of kinship (Les structures élémentaires de la parenté). Revised ed.; translated from the French by James Harle Bell, John Richard von Sturmer and Rodney Needham, editor. Eyre & Spottiswoode, London. 1969 The raw and the cooked. Translated from the French by John and Doreen Weightman. Harper and Row, New York. 1966 The savage mind (Pensée Sauvage). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 12 Outline March 7, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World A Brief History of the Industrial Revolution: Population, Technology, and Economics • From: Braudel, Fernand. 1981 . The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization & Capitalism 15th 18th Century. Volume 1. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York. • Estimated Populations in the Old World: 15 to 18th Centuries • No one knows the total population of the world between the 15th and 18th centuries. • In Western Europe, a prolonged population rise occurred between 1100 and 1350, another between 1450 and 1650, and a third after 1750. Sharp decreases occurred between 1350 and 1450 due to disease (the Black Death) and again from 1650 to 1750. • From Braudel 1981:39. • Estimated European population is between 250 to 350 million in 1300 and probably doubled by 1780. • The extraordinary demographic increase in China occurs around 1680 with ca. 120 million people up to 1850 with ca. 430 million people. • A revolution in agricultural technologies is cited as the cause for this demographic increase. Question: Since 1850 in only ca. 160 years, how much has population grown? • “A growing increase in the number of people often ends, and always ended in the past, by exceeding the capacity of the society concerned to feed them.” (Braudel 1981:33). • This need to feed more people caused by population pressure is seen by Boserup (1966) as the driving force behind the invention of new technologies. • These new technologies are applied initially to agriculture which can lead to further population growth. • Boserup (1966) indicates that increased populations result in the shift from horticultural to extensive agricultural (slash and burn) societies. As population continues to rise in a given area, extensive agricultural practices shift to intensive ones (intensive agricultural societies) where new technologies (I.e., the plow, irrigation, fertilization, machinery) are invented to increase the carrying capacity of a particular area or territory. Remember the different types of subsistence strategies that we went over with plants and animals. • The term “Industrial Revolution” refers to the dramatic technological and economic innovations that occurred in England during the period from about 1760 to 1830. 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 12 Outline March 7, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • Definition in Nolan and Lenski (2006:193): “To be meaningful, the term should be limited to the period during which the productive activities of societies were rapidly transformed by the invention of a succession of machines powered by newer, inanimate sources of energy, such as coal, electricity, petroleum, and natural gas.” • The basic cause was the growing store of technological information in the latter part of the agrarian era (I.e prior to the 1700’s). • The spread of new technological and ideological information was increased by the development of the printing press which was a system of movable type, probably invented by Johann Gutenberg, in the middle of the 15th century (1400’s). First Phase: • Textiles machines. The traditional spinning wheel was replaced by the spinning jenny. This lead to large looms that could not be operated by humans. • A demand for alternative sources of energy lead to the invention of steam engines by James Watt. • These inventions led to the rapid expansion of the British textile industries between 1770 and 1845. • One of the immediate consequences of the advances in textile production was the creation of a factory system. • Production was no longer controlled at the household or community level but control shifted to the owners of the machines and factories. • Indicative of three clear characteristics of capitalism or an economic system where the means of production and distribution are privately owned. • 1. Means of production controlled outside of the household and community by owners of machines and factories. • 2. Means of distribution controlled outside the household and community by a merchant class that owns the transportation to take products to distant locations, and; • 3. Payment required is not in the form of useful goods but as a set exchange medium or money whereby the goal of the exchange is not balanced (one useful product for another) but is for more money than was initially paid for the product or, in other words, for profit. • Iron use also expanded greatly in this first phase thanks to the invention of the coalfired blast furnace. For instance in 1788, England produced 68,000 tons of iron by 1845 this had increased 24 times. Second Phase: • One of the most important developments was the use of the steam engine for transportation leading to large networks of railroads and steamships. • This allowed for the contact and opening up of new markets for the products being produced in England and Europe. 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 12 Outline March 7, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • “It is only a step from market to colony.” (Braudel 1981:102). • Colonialism – refers to the political, social, economic, and cultural domination ofa territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time. • Modern colonialism began with the "Age of Discovery" during which European nations founded colonies throughout the New World. An early phase occurred from 1492 to 1825 and a more imperialistic phase ran from 1850 to just after the end of WWII. • Other important technological innovations include in the rubber industry with vulcanization which prevented rubber goods from becoming sticky in hot weather. • In the 1860’s the electric dynamo was invented which allowed for the large scale use of electricity in industry and the transformer was invented which helped to alleviate the loss of energy during longdistance transmissions. • A hierarchy of salaried managers within industries also began. Question: Was this the beginning of the institutionalization of business (economics based on the principles of supply and demand and the profit motive)? Third Phase: • The early 1900’s brought a new phase to the Industrial Revolution, particularly in the fields of transportation, electricity and communications. • Discoveries in the late 1800’s by inventors like Thomas Edison allowed for the development of new industries. These inventions include the internal combustion engine (automobiles), telephone, radio, moving pictures, electric generator and plastics. • The common denominator in all these inventions was the focus on the individual. • These technological innovations allowed the individual: • 1. To have access to more services; • 2. To have more decisionmaking powers on how to spend the money earned by selling his/her labor; • 3. To be pulled into the market economy by creating the individual’s need for more products. Remember what Durkheim (1893) noted with the differences between societies (cultures) organized based on kinship compared to those organized based on a division of labor (we could add individuals’ labor). Fourth Phase: 3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 12 Outline March 7, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • The Information Age: Technological innovations that have increased the individual’s access to information. • The main innovations include computers, television, transistors, the Internet, and plastics. • Television is especially important as a device to effect individual’s belief systems since the actions of vast numbers of people who watch TV can be manipulated by its content. • In 1888, 83 percent of the world’s industrial output occurred in five societies: United States, Britain, Germany, France and Russia. • Today (2006), these societies account for only 46 percent with Japan ranked second in GDP. • GDP = gross domestic product and is a measure of the value of all of the goods and services produced in a society. • Nolan and Lenski 2006:202. • Question: What are the top five or ten countries with industrial output based on GDP today (2012)? 4
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