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World Hist II Week 12 Notes

by: RachelB

World Hist II Week 12 Notes Hist 1004

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > History > Hist 1004 > World Hist II Week 12 Notes
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week 12 notes
World History II- HIST1004
Dr. John McNay
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1004 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. John McNay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see World History II- HIST1004 in History at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
World Hist II Buckel Week 12 Japan  Had just come out of their “middle ages” and was readjusting to the new customs  The invasion of Manchukuo was an act of the military alone  1937- they pick another fight with China and they prove themselves to be militarily superior o the Chinese army wasn’t well trained or armed, allowing the Japanese to defeat them o the Chinese gov’t moved inland to escape the Japanese, leaving Nanking undefended  The Rape of Nanking- mass murder of Chinese people in Nanking by the invading Japanese army o The Japanese were following the tradition of the samurai- giving up was shameful and they were seen as warriors o Japanese advancement stops at Nanking, and China rounds up a million Japanese soldiers nd  Soviet Union- 20 million deaths in WWII China: 10 million deaths (2 highest death toll but was unheard of) Europe  Fascist movement takes over in Europe- Mussolini inspires Hitler with his fascist ideas  Hitler adopts and moved to extreme genocide, something Mussolini never did  Germany o Hitler is released from prison, and the sales of his book not only make him wealthy, but the book is popular among Nazi circles o Mein Kompf makes Hitler a leader of the movement o Weimar Republic- German gov’t at the time  Seen as the gov’t that allowed the Versailles treatyNazis hated it March to War  Hindenburg- only real German military figure that comes out of WWI with his reputation intact  became influential in gov’t  1933- Nazis push for Hitler to become chancellor  Hindenburg doesn’t like Hitler, but under pressure approves the appointment  Hitler uses Reichstag Fire to suspend constitutional gov’t to gain power and “deal with the emergency”  He begins to build an air force, raise an army, and dares the allies to stop him  The Allies recognize the business interests in Germany and decide to let Germany build itself back up, unaware of the power and charm Hitler had in Germany  Note that Hitler was actually Austrian, but declared himself German due to the language  He began taking territory in Europe where German was spoken  Austria was a main contender  Hitler becomes leader of the Nazis, and Nazis start filling in seats in parliament (Reichstag), although they never win any votes they acquire more power in the gov’t  There is no politician in Austria that provided hope for the Austrians, and the citizens looked to Hitler for the hope and promises of being a part of Germany’s new Reich  Hitler rides into Austria with some soldiers behind him, and crowds in the streets of Vienna cheer him on  Anschluss- signed by the Austrians to promise to be a part of Germany  Hitler soon targets Czechoslovakia, but they are very resistant to becoming German (they were proud of being a new country and didn’t want to give it up)  The Slovaks are persuaded into siding with the Germans, and a meeting is set up in Munich  Munich- Hitler turns on the charm and convinces the politicians there that he just wanted a small piece of Czechoslovakia, and give it to him because the Czechs didn’t want anything to do with him o Within days, he encourages a revolt by the Slovaks and teamed with the Czech land he acquired, Czechoslovakia became German  The British and French tell Hitler that if he attacks Poland, he would be declaring war o The problem: they don’t take real action (like putting troops there) o They didn’t think the Germans would invade Poland because of the Soviet Union being so close  September, 1939- the Soviets and Germans announced Non-Aggression Pact- “we’re at peace with each other” o Secret part: Soviets were going to attack from the other side of Poland  The Germans attack Poland shortly after, and the British and French couldn’t do anything about it  Germany and the Soviet Union defeat Poland by the end of September  Norway: fight and are defeated, but keep fighting didn’t give up like Sweden  Germans had tanks (concentrated in divisions) and airplanes, used in Blitzkrieg (“lightning war”)  In WWII, Germany builds a tactical air force (not a strategic air force like the rest of the world)  France o Germany wanted to try the Schlefflan plan again, but Hitler didn’t want to because he believed Britain and France would expect it so he convinced military personnel to go with his plan: Sickelschnitt  Fake the Schlefflan Plan: they attack Belgium British and French rush into Belgium Germans cut south into a forest/mountainous area, and have the British and French surrounded and defeated within 3 weeks  Britain saves 300,000 soldiers by having people cross the English Channel and pick them up in their boats  Triumph of the Will (1935)- Nazi propaganda film  When the US puts a petroleum block on Japan, it is detrimental to the Japanese as they didn’t have any resources for themselves o This was done to drive them out of China  In 1941, the Japanese begin to run out of oil, and knew they had to act soon before they did  The real Japanese plan was to take over the oil reserves in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, etc.) but they believed that in order to do this, they had to eliminate the US’s ability to respond to their reaching across Asia o They decide to keep the US out of it by destroying their base in Pearl Harbor  The view by the Japanese of the US is that America was weak as a country because of the diversity, whereas Japan is primarily one race o They think people having fun in media was an accurate representation of American unity and strength (they thought it was weak of the US and if they hit hard, they could destroy us)  The US made several racist laws and cartoons against the Japanese and Chinese, which turned American opinion to the idea that they were weak and weren’t a real threat  The attack on Pearl Harbor was a new idea because nobody had ever used a long-distance air attack to take out an enemy base o There wasn’t much resistance from Pearl Harbor and the American death toll was about 2,200  FDR wanted to get involved in the war, but he was focused on attacking Germany, not Japan o Didn’t want a 2-front war  The day after FDR gets a declaration of war, Hitler declares war on the US Impact of WWII  The empires begin to fall apart o The British Empire takes a large hit because they run into Indian nationalism Indian Nationalism  India had a very complex society o There are dozens of languages spoken in India and several religions (Main ones: Hinduism and Islam) o Hinduism followed the caste system, and to convert to any other religion was to reject the caste system, and many people weren’t willing to do that  Mughal Dynasty (1550s-1700s) o Battle of Plassey was a big turning point because the British gain control of India  Raj- created under the British  Imperialism is always based on racism and exploitation, but those who initiate it don’t see it that way- they see it as charitable  By 1857, the British thought the Indians knew they were there to help them and be a part of the great British Empire o There wasn’t united resistance because India wasn’t united itself The Raj  Great Mutiny (1857) o The British supplied the Indian soldiers with gunsgunpowder packets coated with grease to keep drygrease from animal fatanimals used were sacredreligion is violatedarmy attacks British officers and civilians o The British East India Company was really the gov’t for these people and it was seen that the BEAC was the one in the wrong o BEAC was cut out of governing the Indians o Queen Victoria crowns herself Empress of India Indian Nationalism  Indian National Congress (1885)  Swaraj- agreed resistance against the British  All India Muslim League o Muhamad Ali Jinnah- leader of this league WWI  Gov’t of India Act (1919) o Indians could not gather in large groups for fear of plotting a resistance  Amritsar Massacre (April 1919) o A large group of people make it into a stadium to have a discussion about resistance o The British see them there, lock them in the stadium, and mow down the thousands of Indians with machine guns Gandhi  Born into a relatively middle-class family  Recognized as a smart person, and one of the things the British did was educate certain people to fill in the bureaucracy  As a lawyer, he wanted to serve the empire  Goes to South Africa, where the British made an Indian community as they are laborers  He doesn’t face racism in Britain but when he gets to South Africa, he has a 1 class train ticket and they wouldn’t let him ride there and was thrown off the train  Makes a name for himself by using British law against the British to defend Indians in South Africa  1920- returns to India and is greeted by a big crowd of people (made a name for himself in SA) o Starts the non-cooperation programthere are millions of Indians and only a few thousand British, and it should be easy to overthrow them  1922-1924 Gandhi in jail for the non-cooperation  Wanted the peace movement to be non-violent  Salt March (1930) o Hundreds of thousands of people join his march to the sea (protest against the British salt tax)  Government of India Act (1935)  Quit India Movement (1942) o The British wanted the Indian army to help them out, but India wanted independence and didn’t help them o There is a very small number of Indians who fight the Japanese, and a few Allied bases were kept in India  When the war ends, the British see that they don’t have the power or money to keep trying to take over India  Partition of India (1947) o Gandhi wanted an Indian nation that was multi-racial/cultural/religious o Many Hindu nationalists wanted just a Hindu state, but the Muslims insist that there had to be a section of India for Muslims, and a section for Hindus o India and Pakistan are countries created by religious divide


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