History 3211 week 14 notes
History 3211 week 14 notes 3211
Popular in Classical Greece
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Eschenbach on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3211 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Greg Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Classical Greece in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
4-12-16 Socrates o Trial 399 BC o “Pre-socratics”any philosopher who came before Socrates—all philosophers known around Socrates-he is a landmark figure o Didn’t consider himself a teacher, didn’t sell his knowledge, just spread it o He never wrote anything, all information about him is secondhand—only know his idea through the works of others, chiefly through his best known follower, Plato—at best semi-fictional accounts o Principle student of Plato was Aristotle o SocratesPlatoAristotle o Methods—fairly systematic method—challenged people—the Elenchus (challenging, questioning, testing)—pretty negative type of a method— challenged other people. Testing their knowledge/stories/beliefs o Socratic views Against democracy where one could easily criticize that most of its participants are either not or very poorly educated—didn’t believe these people could make good decisions Opposes man is the measure of all things theory of Protagoras Argued the idea of absolute, universal truth Highest of absolute good is true knowledge Charge: Disliked for corrupting the youth Believed he was connected to the 30 tyrants Charge: introducing new gods to the people o Right before he diesmakes a dedication to the god of healing—his last words o Apology of Socrates—defense speech—attitude is that the people should thank him for what he’s done—considers himself a benefactor of the polis, not someone who has committed any type of crime An example to show there is no immortal wisdom—compares himself to an insect—says Athens is a horse that needs to be steered, motivated by a fly (him) Found to be no one else wiser than him when asking the oracle who asks the gods o Actual verdict—500 judges—verdict was very close o When it came to deciding the punishment, the verdict was much more against Socrates, not close at all, because he was cocky about it—the idea that he should be rewarded with free meals for the rest of his life or death being the only options, they overwhelmingly chose death o Not really scared, going in to the afterlife where he will meet smart people from the past o While in jail, comes up with the idea of a mortal body and an immortal soul— get rid of the shackles of the body to allow the pure soul to live o Final dialogue of Plato covers the life of Socrates—Phaedo Courts: o Areopagus—deals with intentional killing (homicide) o Palladion—unintentional killing (manslaughter) 1 4-12-16 o Delphinion—dealing with lawful killing—certain kinds of killing were determined to be lawful—question of this court: was it or was it not a lawful killing? —has to do with Apollo (Delphi) o Phreatto—deal with those who have been exiled and killed—those involved in this had to wait on a boat during trial—in exile so they could not come into physical contact with Athens because that would pollute it and insult the gods o Prytaneion—deal with killing from inanimate objects or animals: ex: walking down the street, something falls on your head and kills you-object put on trial, if found guilty would be exiled, if animal is found guilty, it would be killed—town hall—flame to the goddess of the heart of Athens—must be burning at all times to keep the flame of Athens alive o Dikasteria—court of judges (judge=dikastes)—normal law courts—where most Athenian law cases happened Two different types of cases brought in here: Dike: “justice” Refers to “personal injury”—if personally injured, you are the only one who can bring this to court Only the injured person or their family can bring about a dike Must defend yourself Graphe: “indictment” Considered injury to the demos— “polis injury” Socrates’ case considered this, doesn’t harm a specific person but the polis as a whole—two random citizens felt the need to bring his case about and took it upon themselves If you feel someone has harmed the polis, you must bring about a graphe Must defend yourself and your case as to why the person is injuring the polis There is no police force but if someone didn’t show up to defend themselves, they would be condemned—good reason to show up Athenians basically left to themselves to keep themselves safe Judges are just regular people who have volunteered to be a judge for a year Each case could only last for one day so a judge could have overseen dozens of cases in that year o Body of 6,000 volunteers to be judge o 200-1500=average number of judges chosen—need 200 per case—each person chosen from a pool of the 6,000 volunteers o Judges chosen the morning of the trial for each case Idea is to combat bribery Hard to bribe 200 judges and if you only find out the morning of the trial, it’s even harder to bribe them The demos make up the 6,000 volunteers—considered to be the minimum to represent the whole polis Isn’t about empowering individuals but is the face of Athens itself 2 4-12-16 The agency judging and making the verdict is not a bunch of individuals but the face of Athens itself Very time consuming, paid a small stipend for doing it—get ½ drachma— not a lot at all—daily wage for common people was 1 drachma Most people who volunteered were elderly, poor, leisure people who don’t have to work because they have slaves o Rules of evidence What is admissible to the case? —there are no rules in Athens, you can bring anything to trial if you think it will help your case With evidence we have nowadays, it is clear that there is plenty of evidence that was used that we would now see as irrelevant or inadmissible, often the evidence was completely fabricated but there is no judge there per say that can deem this inadmissible Judges do not speak during the trial at all—simply watch and then decide who the winner is No cross examination of witnesses No professional lawyers to be your representative One type of professional help you could get—someone to write your speech for you—a logographos-a paid speech writer, someone who specializes in writing persuasively o Actual process—prosecutor will bring notice of the charge or complaint to some sort of official who will let the accused know of the situation, possible the two parties could negotiate and resolve it outside court—this is the ideal solution, trial is a last-case resort o If a resolution could not be made, a trial would be set o Lottery machine—kleroterion—this is what would decide which judges are on which cases o Each side would present their case in a speech, timed speeches, each can rebut their opponent, timing speeches is what allowed Athenians to get through each case in one day o Klepsydra—water stealer—very simple mechanism—two jars/urns of the same size, top one is full of water, time it takes to drain to the lower jar was as long as you had to make your case o The bigger/more serious the case, the bigger the jar o Used voting disks—each judge is issued two, one with a solid middle (not guilty) and one with a hole in the middle (guilty)—these are what decide acquittal or conviction o Maintained unbiased choices by covering the center with your hand so others wouldn’t know what you were voting for o Possible punishments: Fines Atimia— “no honor”—basically losing citizen’s privileges—if found guilty of an egregious crime, you would lose these—usually result from a graphe of some kind Example to lead to this—striking your parents, squandering your inheritance—see this as harmful to the polis—public injury when a household squanders its resources 3 4-12-16 Those expected to pay for public welfare type things like triremes and choruses won’t be able to anymore Athens sees itself as a body made of households—to a point expected to look after themselves but at the same time, if the body as a whole dies, the households will die as well—type of interdependency between the households, rich have to be able to pay for things for the poor Death itself—hemlock or apotympanismos— “boarding”=methods— strapping someone to a board with shackles-wrists, ankles and neck are strapped, and the person is put outside the polis—ultimately die of dehydration, exposure, similar to crucifixion—your bodies weight is going to end up sagging and you will possibly suffocate from the binds on the neck— often results from theft, being a traitor to the polis Lessor capital offenses would incur the hemlock Two methods make it so that there is no other Athenian that actually has to do the killing—almost the victim who is killing themselves— drink the hemlock themselves or suffocating themselves Both very private and clean—no bloodshed—don’t like bloodshed, have 5 different courts to deal with it Not spectacular, hemlock takes place in the jail, strapping to board is meant to take place outside the city—both done out of public eye No one in Athens had to deal with the guilt of killing someone else, a fellow Athenian o Athenians famous in Greek world for being very litigious—very fond of their law courts (similar to America today) Traditional societies didn’t feel the need as much to establish rights, freedoms, etc. Athens not based on the idea of human rights as we are today 4
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