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Module 14 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 14 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover week 14 of class and focus on Chapter 14 of our textbook. The notes are organized based on the subject headings listed in the text.
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
Language Ideology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
Module  14  Notes   Language  Ideology   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   April  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   articulate  language  ideology  in  general  and  linguistic  hegemony  in  particular.   •    explain  the  evolution  of  linguistic  ideologies.   •    articulate  implications  of  dialects  and  vernaculars  in  educational  settings  and  second   language  learning.   •    reflect  on  pedagogical  challenges  due  to  linguistic  differences  and  complexity  as  well  as   possible  strategies  that  can  be  employed  in  L2  classrooms.     Readings/References   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Language  ideologies.  In  Applying  linguistics  in  the  classroom:     A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  287-­‐305).  New  York:  Routledge.     Acronyms:   •   language  ideologies  =  LI   •   linguistic  society  of  America  =  LSA   •   African-­‐American  English  =  AAE   •   Standard  American  English  =  SAE     Chapter  14  Notes   Introduction   •   Language  ideologies:   o   bring  together  the  micro  and  macro  dimensions  of  language,  where  form  and   function,  practice  and  theory,  FLESH,  and  HEART  coalesce  into  a  single  critical   juncture  of  how  language  envelops  our  lives   o   makes  an  explicit  connection  between  language  use  and  the  interests  of  the   nation-­‐state  power  structure,  including  educational  policies  advocating  “English   only”  or  other  “standard”  varieties   o   helps  us  understand  the  power  relations  between  dialects  and  the  standard   language,  language  change  and  revitalization,  as  well  as  language  death   •   most  ELLs  are  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  US,  with  CA  having  the  highest  number   •   No  Child  Left  Behind  and  Race  to  the  Top  have  not  only  improved  academic  success  for   ELLs  and  non-­‐dominant  populations,  they  have  been  disastrous  for  them,  their  teachers,   and  teacher  education  programs  throughout  the  US   •   Tremendous  disconnect  between  language  research,  policy,  and  practice   o   Most  of  the  policies  emphasize  linguistic  code  and  ignore  the  last  3  questions   related  to  what  language  actually  is:  performance,  semiotic,  and  ideology   §   What  do  people  say?   §   How  do  people  say  what  they  say?   §   What  do  people  mean?   §   How  do  values,  beliefs,  and  social  and  institutional  relations  of  power   mediate  meaning?     Language  Ideologies   •   LI:  beliefs  about  language  that  users  articulate  in  order  to  provide  the  rationale  for  how   they  use  language  in  particular  situations   o   Not  confined  merely  to  ideas  or  beliefs,  but  rather  is  extended  to  include  the   very  language  practices  through  which  our  ideas  or  notions  are  enacted   •   Speakers  often  assume  their  ideas  about  language  to  be  self-­‐evident,  natural,  common   sense,  and  they  are  loaded  with  moral  and  political  interests   •   Typology  of  practices  that  one  can  look  at  to  examine  how  languages  mediate  learning   and  instruction   o   Voicing   o   Repair   o   Affective  alignment   o   Metadiscourse   o   Social  organization  of  learning   o   Student  challenges   o   Narrative  and  teacher  beliefs   o   Awareness   o   Numeracy  practices   •   Development  of  a  critical  consciousness  of  language  is  an  essential  professional   responsibility,  especially  engaging  in  the  metadiscourse  of  language  with  both  non-­‐ dominant  populations   •   Ideological  tension  between  the  polyglot  standard  and  the  monoglot  standard  is  at  the   heart  of  language  and  learning  debates   •   When  we  consider  the  issues  of  identity,  ideology,  and  language  together,  the  struggle   between  dominant  and  non-­‐dominant  discourses  and  languages  is  really  an  issue  of   linguistic  sovereignty     o   Mom  and  pop:  bottom  up  approach   §   +  give  local  communities  greater  authority,  privileges  variation,   empowers  more  people  with  sovereignty,  and  fosters  more  symmetrical   distribution  of  the  modes  of  production  and  capital   §   -­‐  prices  are  generally  higher,  there  is  less  regulation  and  quality  control,   and  perhaps  less  security   o   Wal-­‐Mart:   §   +  greater  standardization,  better  economy  of  scale,  efficiency,  and  lower   prices  for  more   §   -­‐  capital  is  concentrated  in  the  hands  of  the  few   o   scientific:  describes  a  small  portion  of  the  nature,  function,  and  purpose  of   language  in  human  life   •   formalist/cognitive  linguists  argue  that  multilinguism  is  good  for  the  economy  or   bilinguals  have  “cognitive  advantages”  as  compared  to  their  monolingual  peers   o   disingenuous  in  that  they  don’t  present  a  complete  portrait  of  what  language  is,   how  it  functions,  and  its  centrality  to  our  collective  identity  and  ethical  well-­‐ being   •   LSA:  deficit  view  of  immigrant  populations  that  still  reinforced  the  monoglot  standard   rather  than  advocate  for  a  more  principled  stance  which  aligns  more  closely  with  the   four  questions  of  language     Language  change     •   Even  those  that  are  relatively  isolated  are  susceptible  to  change  because  human  beings   are  dynamic   •   Language  changes  over  time,  but  not  because  of  time;  because  speakers  bring  a   distinctly  unique  subjectivity  and  transforms  the  voices  that  preceded  him  or  her  into   their  own   •   Change  usually  occurs  because  one  language  comes  into  contact  with  another   o   May  result  in  changes  of  one  language,  but  could  eventually  result  in  the   replacing  of  one  language  by  the  other     Language  contact     •   Happens  when  speakers  of  two  languages  come  into  frequent  contact  with  one  another   •   People  from  one  language  will  borrow  words  from  the  other   o   Can  be  due  to  either  implicit  or  explicit  forms  of  coercion   •   When  English  speakers  came  to  America,  they  were  exposed  to  new  produce,  objects,   and  places  for  which  they  had  no  words   o   Most  efficient  and  economical  way  to  solve  this  dilemma  would  be  to  import  the   word  from  the  “others”  language   •   Policies  are  made  to  explicitly  prevent  loan  words  from  coming  into  the  language   •   This  is  how  identity  and  ideology  is  protected  through  language  policy   •   Dialect  and  language   o   Only  difference  is  that  language  is  a  dialect  with  an  army   •   Calques:  similar  to  a  loan  word  that  has  been  imported  from  a  different  language,  but  it   is  made  up  of  words  that  are  already  present  in  the  original  language     Language  shift     •   Happens  when  a  group  of  people,  over  generations,  begin  to  shift  from  primarily  using   one  language  to  primarily  using  another   •   Spanish-­‐speaking  cities  throughout  the  Southwestern  part  of  the  US  have  maintained   Spanish  to  a  larger  degree  across  generations  and  in  some  places  it  even  functions  as  a   lingua  franca   o   Hybrid  forms  such  as  Spanglish  and  Chicano  English  have  also  emerged     Language  death     •   Occurs  when  a  language  ceases  to  be  used  in  everyday  practice   o   May  continue  to  be  used  for  specific  purposes  –  ceremonies,  religions,  etc.  –  but   is  not  used  for  oral  everyday  communicative  purposes   •   Aka  extinct  language   •   There  are  about  6,500  languages,  half  of  them  are  under  threat  of  extinction  within  50-­‐ 100  years   •   Concern  or  lack  of  concern  regarding  the  death  of  languages  comes  from  one’s  own   language  ideological  position   o   Sociocultural  language  ideology  believes  that  language  is  synonymous  with   identity,  history,  and  values,  which  means  they  would  approach  the  issue  of   language  death  with  a  greater  sense  of  urgency   o   Believe  that  to  lose  a  language  is  to  lose  an  identity     Language  revitalization     •   Large  grants,  universities,  and  other  organizations  have  sought  to  support  reviving  some   of  the  languages  that  have  died,  or  to  protect  those  that  are  endangered   •   Examples:  Hebrew,  Hawaiian,  and  Irish  Gaelic   o   Hebrew:  ceased  to  be  spoken  in  common  practice  after  the  ancient  Israelites   were  conquered  by  the  Babylonians  roughly  some  600  years  B.C. thnd  began th  being  used  for  everyday  talk  and  literacy  writing  in  the  19  and  20  century   when  the  Jews  began  moving  back  to  Palestine   §   Language  could  only  be  revived  in  written  form  since  there  was  a   millennial  break  in  the  oral  tradition   o   Hawaiian:  the  US  created  legislation  that  facilitated  the  erasure  of  Hawaiian   language  from  common  usage  when  they  colonized  Hawaii  in  1898   §   now  there  is  an  initiated  the  first  dictionary  project  and  a  1980’s   immersion  programs  for  S  to  learn  Hawaiian   o   Irish  Gaelic:  remain  only  a  few  places  in  Ireland  where  it  is  spoken  as  a  first   language   §   Though  a  minority  language,  it  is  privileged  as  the  first  official  language  of   Ireland,  with  English  being  second   §   Presently  nearly  5  times  as  many  Irish  Gaelic  speakers  as  there  were  in   the  early  part  of  the  20  century   •   Revitalization  would  have  likely  failed  without  the  micro-­‐level,  grassroots  participation     From  bilingual  to  heteroglossia     •   Political  pluralism  and  language  ideological  pluralism  are  like  identical  twins;  one  cannot   live  without  the  other   •   Bilingualism:  used  to  describe  individuals  who  speak  two  languages   •   Diglossia:  focuses  on  the  community,  context,  and  contestations  that  emerge  through   the  use  of  two  languages   o   Languages  are  ascribed  different  levels  of  status  and  the  speakers  are  aware  of   these  differentiated  uses  and  the  accompanying  status  markers  in  these  types  of   communities   •   Heteroglossia:  multiple  languages  are  used  in  the  ways  described  above   o   Not  only  captures  the  plurality  of  languages  but  also  the  contestation  that   inevitably  arises  from  sometimes  conflicting  functions,  goals,  and  divergent   language  ideologies     Pidgins  and  Creoles     •   New  languages  emerge  on  the  boundaries  of  discourses  between  groups  of  people  who   otherwise  don’t  have  a  common  language   •   Arise  as  the  need  for  communication  between  ethnolinguistic  groups  increase   •   Aka  trade  languages  because  they  are  used  for  commercial  purposes   •   Examples:   o   Tok  Pisin:  a  pidgin  language  in  Papua,  New  Guinea   §   Recognized  as  one  of  the  official  languages     §   Words  are  primarily  drawn  from  English   §   Language  serves  only  one  major  purpose,  for  inter-­‐group  communication   regarding  trade   o   Hawaiian  Pidgin:  widely  used  in  the  state  of  Hawaii   §   Some  educational  programs  have  recently  begun  to  recognize  it  as  its   own  language,  and  therefore  teach  as  though  it  is  a  bilingual  context   •   If  children  begin  to  learn  pidgins  as  a  first  language,  the  pidgin  may  develop  into  a  creole   so  it  can  be  used  to  meet  many  more  needs     Dialects  and  vernaculars:  The  Case  of  African-­‐American  English     •   Pidgins  and  Creoles  have  sometimes  been  constructed  through  the  prism  of  deficit  and   purist  language  ideologies   o   Status  markers  like  slang,  broken,  or  other  types  of  degraded  categories   •   Dialects:  Variations  from  the  standard  language   o   A  variety  of  language  defined  by  both  geographical  factors  and  social  factors   such  as  class,  religion,  and  ethnicity   o   Usually  related  dialects  are  all  considered  one  language   •   AAE:  some  people  consider  it  to  be  a  dialect,  or  variety  of  some  variation  of  SAE   o   Often  judged  as  sub-­‐standard,  or  non-­‐standard,  when  compared  to  its  parent   language   o   Spoken  by  roughly  80%  of  African-­‐Americans   •   Not  all  linguists  consider  it  to  be  a  dialect  of  English   o   Considered  to  be  a  hybrid  variety  that  combines  multiple  historical  strands  from   Africa,  the  Americas,  Asia,  the  Caribbean,  and  Western  European  worlds   o   Represents  the  nexus  of  broader  historical  struggles  for  identity  that  bring   together  the  painful  legacy  of  enslavement,  the  counter-­‐narratives  of  resilience,   and  the  emergence  of  new  possibilities  in  the  face  of  seemingly  insurmountable   odds   o   Developed  as  a  Creole  during  the  slave  trade   o   Served  as  a  base  for  a  pidgin  so  that  speakers  of  many  different  African   languages  could  speak  with  each  other  and  the  slave  traders   o   Developed  into  a  full-­‐fledged  language  that  further  split  into  AAE,  Jamaican   creoles,  and  Gullah   •   AAE  is  not  just  a  local  phenomenon  but  a  global  one  as  evidenced  by  its  influence  on   hip-­‐hop  with  its  literary  implications   •   Ebonics:  derived  from  the  words  ebony  and  phonics   o   Aka  black  sounds   o   Coined  in  1996  when  Oakland  schools  attempted  to  formalize  the  recognition  of   Ebonics  in  an  effort  to  give  it  equal  status  with  other  languages   §   Would  have  allowed  districts  with  predominant  AAE  users  to  qualify  for   English  language  learner  support  services     Repair:  Building  language  ideological  consciousness     •   Repair:  forms  of  corrective  feedback  to  language   •   Discussion  of  what,  where,  when,  and  how  T  corrects  S  language  practices  is  one  of  the   best  indexes  of  how  language  ideologies  are  practices   •   Classroom  discourse:  T  engaged  in  repair  practices  that  are  about  regulating  normative   classroom  interaction  patterns  and  reinforcing  the  purist  notion  of  a  singular,  correct   English  free  from  alternative  variations   •   Not  always  about  meaning  but  can  be  mediated  by  purist  and  assimilationist  language   ideologies   •   May  lead  to  questions  of  whether  one  should  correct  or  not  correct  a  student’s   response   •   Alternative  approach  to  doing  repair  with  ELLs   o   Establishing  confianza  with  S  requires  a  range  of  practices  and  an  ethnographic   sense  of  who  each  S  is   o   Some  T  use  terms  of  endearments  in  Spanish  to  acknowledge  the  S’  home   language   o   Redirecting  corrective  feedback  to  peers  and  asking  questions  that  lead  toward   more  conceptual  thinking  rather  than  simply  providing  the  correct  answer  is   beneficial  for  S  as  is  speaking  directly  about  S  writing  in  private  ways   o   Correction,  whether  explicit  or  implicit,  is  more  about  the  relationship  one  builds   with  S  rather  than  the  potential  cognitive  benefits  or  harm  of  isolated  acts  of   repair   •   Examples  of  alternative  AAE  speech   o   We  is  versus  we  are   o   Aks  versus  ask   o   Finna  or  gonna  versus  going  to   o   S  rationalized  that  “we  is”  is  appropriate  and  correct,  because  to  him,  in  AAE,  we   is  means  we  one,  a  family     Case  Study     •   Different  languages  can  be  used,  and  even  sometimes  needed,  in  different  contexts  and   for  different  reasons   •   Plurilingual  situations  are  very  similar  to  what  mane  people  from  our  classes  encounter   on  a  daily  basis   o   They  have  to  speak  different  languages  in  different  situations   •   Important  to  understand  monolingual  elders  sometimes  want  to  keep  the  social   relationships  alive  in  the  community     Db  Post   •   Critical  Q/A   •    Facilitating  the  discussion  by  providing  feedback  to  my  peers  (at  least  two  postings).      


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