CHEM 372 Week 1 Notes
CHEM 372 Week 1 Notes CHEM 372
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshua Torres on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 372 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Jones in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Metabolism in Chemistry at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
CHEM 372 Week 1 Notes Week 1: Day 1 Metabolism – how cells process and distribute matter (elements – Nitrogen and Carbon) and energy Metabolism – survival on the short time scale, not some specialized function o Pathways are common to most cells on Earth Example processes o Converting carbon and nitrogen to biomolecules Glucose to Acetyl CoA o Making ATP o Recycling waste matter Not Metabolic processes o Replication, transcription, translation o Cell cycle or specialized cell function Hierarchy of matter o Inorganic molecules (H2O, CO2) – Metabolites (Urea, Acetyl CoA) – Building blocks – Polymers Catabolism – large molecules to smaller molecules, releasing energy Polymers - - - - - Building blocks - - - Small molecules Anabolism – start with small molecules and put energy into reaction to produce large molecules Catabolism o Glucose broken down into Acetyl CoA o Acetyl CoA to be oxidized to produce energy o Acetyl CoA to produce other molecules o Energy produced at many steps along the way and at the end Anabolism o Acetyl CoA broken down to Fatty Acids then to Triacyl Glycerols o Put energy in, to get matter out In both pathways, matter and energy have to be accounted for; always conserved Pathways are a sequence of molecules (intermediates) and are also a sequence of reactions with a catalyst (enzymes) Intermediates can often times travel in between pathways Occurs if G < 0 (Gibbs Free Energy is negative) o ∆G = ∆H – T∆S ∆H = heat/work o ∆H < 0 work done by system ∆S = variability, number of accessible states o ∆S < 0 less variability Hydration of ions – putting them separately in water creates IMF’s, Enthalpy is negative Toluene into water – water will from around it but no IMF’s created, so Enthalpy is positive All ∆G tells us is where the equilibrium of the reaction lies o Far enough from equilibrium can shift the reaction in unfavorable directions ∆G = ∆G˚ + RT*lnQ for any reaction ∆G of reaction under standard state conditions 2 ∆G˚’ = standard state for biology o 1 atm, 298.15K, 1 Molar (M), pH = 7 Reaction quotient, Q, determines ∆G’ of reaction - - - concentrations decide ∆G’ where reaction will flow Using electrons: o ∆G˚ = -nF∆˚ = -nF (∆˚ + [RT/(nF)]*ln[oxid.]/[red.] o n = number of electrons being transferred o F = Faraday’s constant = 96500 Jmol -1 o ∆˚ = reaction potential ∆G’ usually negative for o Phosphate hydrolysis o Thioesters o Oxidation of electron carriers Can force reactions to become favorable by adding any of the above reactions to pathway For ATP hydrolysis o ∆G˚’ = -30.5 kJ/mol o ∆G’ = from -20 to -50 kJ/mol Standard reduction potential – how much a molecule wants to be reduced Molecule + electron (oxidized) - - - - Molecule (reduced) Positive - want to be reduced (receive electron) < 0 – want to be, stay oxidized Gold >> 0 Lithium << 0 3 Handing electrons to O i2 the most favorable reaction (ultimate electron sink). o Most energy is produced by taking NADH (reduced molecule) and giving the electrons to O 2 ∆G’ really close to zero - ~15 kJ/mol 1. ATP hydrolysis and phosphate hydrolysis assumes this reaction irreversible 2. Reduction potential can cancel out the reaction concentrations, so we can assume this reaction is reversible Reduction: o Gain a carbon to hydrogen bond o Sulfur to hydrogen bond o Lose a carbon to oxygen bond Oxidation: o Lose a carbon to hydrogen bond o Lose a sulfur to hydrogen bond o Gain a carbon to oxygen bond 4
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