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L3 Learning, Memory, Conditioning.

by: Alex Notetaker

L3 Learning, Memory, Conditioning. CBNS 126

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > Neuroscience > CBNS 126 > L3 Learning Memory Conditioning
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About this Document

Conditioning: One of the main components of the course, essential for midterm 1. Covers everything in the lecture notes, and has additional explanations to ensure easy understanding of the material.
Learning and Memory
Dr. Korzus
Class Notes
learning, memory, neuroscience




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Notetaker on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBNS 126 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Korzus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Neuroscience at University of California Riverside.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
The Neuroscience of Learning and Memory L3 (Midterm: L2­L7)    Quick Review about Conditioning  There are two broad categories of memory: Declarative and Nondeclarative Memory  *Both declarative and nondeclarative memory are types of long­term memory.  Declarative Memory​  (explicit memory) ­ Memories that can be consciously recalled, such as  facts and events.   Declarative Memory (facts): semantic memory  Declarative Memory (events, episodes in life): episodic memory    (The lectures emphasize procedural memory and learning, but understanding declarative memory  and its difference is still important)  *Nondeclarative, on the other hand, is also referred to asProcedural​ *  Procedural Memory​  ­ Procedural Memory is the memory for particular actions, essentially ones  that do not require conscious awareness (automatic). Some examples are playing a song on the  piano that you have practiced and mastered, tying your own shoelaces, and reading.  *Think procedure, mundane, redundant.    Now that we understand memory, we need want to understand how that memory is produced.  Memory, and even procedural memory, is a very broad term, and understanding how it becomes  a memory requires that we understand the different types of learning    Procedural Learning (Learned to produce ​ Procedural Memory​ ) ­ Repeating a complex  activity over and over again until the neural network in one’s body is able to automatically  produce the activity. (Taken from lecture) Essentially learning a motor response in response to  sensory input.    Furthermore, ​Procedural Learning​  has two types of learning: Associative and Nonassociative​.  Let’s start by explaining the easier of the twoNonassociative​ Learning.  Nonassociative​ Learning: A change in the strength of a response (Habituation: increasingly  weaker​; Sensitization: increasingly stronge) to a single stimulus over repeated exposure to said  stimulus.    Nonassociative​ Learning has two learning processes: ​Habituation​ and Sensitizatio.  Habituation​:Diminishing of a physiological or emotional response to a repeated stimulus.  ● Example: Waking up and you notice the sounds of nature (such as the birds chirping in  the morning) usually for just a brief moment. As you go about the rest of your morning,  your brain becomes accustomed to the morning sounds, and you no longer notice the  birds chirping as you go about your morning schedule.  Sensitization: Increased response to a repeated stimulus (opposite ofHabituation​)  ● Example: In lecture, you notice that the professor likes to end sentences with “okay,” and  you begin to notice it more and more. Since you began noticing this pattern, every  following “okay” from the professor becomes more and more annoying to you.    Associative​ Learning: Someone learns an association between two stimuli, or a behavior and a  stimulus.  ● Pavlov’s case: Bell and food (two stimuli)  ● Operant Conditioning: Blinking and tone (behavior and stimulus, respectively)  *These examples will be explained below, so do not worry*  There are two forms of A​ ssociativ Learning.  Conditioning  Associative Learning  ­Classical Conditioning​ (Think Ivan Pavlov)  ­Operant Conditioning​  (Think Instrumental Conditioning or [J. Konorski, E. Thorndike, B.F.  Skinner])    Classical Conditioning  ­Famous example is Pavlov’s Dog Experiment  ­{CS} Conditioned Stimulus (One that is not innate, taught and will be learned): Bell sound  ­{US}Unconditioned Stimulus (Innate, not learned): Food  ­Unconditioned Response (Response that does not need to be taught) to said {US}: Salivation  ­Conditioned Response: Salivation to the Conditional Stimulus    Before Conditioning  ­Pavlov’s dog does not respond at all to the sound of the bell.  ­Through ringing the bell and subsequently serving the food, the dog began to associate the bell  with the arrival of food.    After Conditioning  ­Pavlov’s dog began to salivate at the sound of the bell.    Operant Conditioning (A.K.A. Instrumental Conditioning or Type II Conditioned Reflexes) is a  process by which humans and animals learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and  avoid punishments.  ­Subjects learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and avoid punishments.  ­Essentially, actions lead to either rewards or consequences.  ­EX: Subjects learn to associate a motor act with a response.  ­Rats learn to press a level that will grant them a food reward.  ­Operant Conditioning shows the importance of motivation, proving that operant conditioning  involves very complex neurological circuits and pathways in the brain.    Other Types of Classical Conditioning  Fear Conditioning  ­Very similar to Pavlov’s example  ­Conditioned Stimulus ­ A simple tone.  ­Unconditioned Stimulus (Innate, will evoke a response no matter what [basically a stimulus  evoking a reflex]) ­ A shock  Goal: T​one {CS} ­> Causes subject to freeze {CR}  Part of brain affected: Amygdala (Emotions)    *Usually the conditioned and unconditioned responses are the same. However, the context is  different. The unconditioned response is oftentimes a reflex response (such as flinching or  clammy hands), the conditioned response is the same response, but this time not so much a reflex  as it is a response to what the conditioned stimulus is associated with. If scientists were to ring a  bell and subsequently deliver a shock, the subject will associate the shock with the bell noise.  From then on, the conditioned response would be freezing up to the bell sound, even if a shock  did not follow afterwards.    Eyeblink Conditioning  ­Same concept as fear conditioning, but with an eyeblink as a response.  ­CS ­ Tone  ­US ­ Puff of air to eye  Goal:​ Tone {CS} ­> Eyeblink {CR}  Part of brain affected: Cerebellum (Motor)   


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