ANTH 021, Week 9
ANTH 021, Week 9 Anthro
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Anthropology 21: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Reid on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Teresa Mares in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Anthropology, Class 17 Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies - “Our Work is Life” • https://vimeo.com/118519109 • How does this ﬁlm make you reﬂect upon your place as a consumer? - Same place we’re reading about in Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies. - Call to action, how successful are the boycotts?, farm workers have been left out of actions systematically (lack of citizenship and illegality makes it hard for there to be a stronger claim for a contract, unfortunately) Important Concepts - Corporatization/ Industrialization of Agriculture: • Fewer and fewer parties (mostly large corporations) are controlling increasingly more production of our food • Emphasis on genetically-modiﬁed food, mass production for “efﬁciency,” use of nonorganic fertilizers, and heavy dependence on chemicals, herbicides, and antibiotics. • “hour-glass effect”- lots of producers, lots of consumers, bottleneck happens at distributors and middlemen • Subsidies, how labor costs are externalized (land/water contamination, fair worker compensation, etc.) • Small, family farms have been closing at an alarming rate (resulting in Consolidation-small scale farms joined together into large scale farms [conglomerates]) • Post WWII Movements - Structural Vulnerability: • a key concept in medical anthropology • …is both a process through which the “…vulnerability of an individual is produced by his or her location in a hierarchical social order and its diverse networks of power relationships and effects” • Social determinants, things that make an individual more likely to live or die (adding to excess death) • ALSO …an analytical stance that examines “…the forces that constrain decision- making, frame choices, and limit life options.” (Quesada et. al. 2011) - Conjugated Oppression: • A term coined by Phillipe Bourgois • Refers to “complex, intimate segregation” (intimate- when bodies are in the same spaces) • “Ethnicity and class work together to produce an oppression experientially and materially different from that produced by either alone” (Holmes; 50) • Intersectionality: our social identities are made up of all different intersections • This is the ﬂip side of intersectionality- because of those hierarchical social identities, you’re more likely to be conglomerately oppressed. - How are these three concepts linked? • our food systems, as they currently unfold, are inherently dependent on oppression • Seth Holmes charts on pg 51*** • Making social stratiﬁcation very visible • Chart on pg 85 • more complex sense of social hierarchy and oppression/privilege Seth Holmes Fairhaven College Presentation Anthropology, Class 18 Kinship: Marriage and Family - Kinship Through Marriage • Marriage is a more or less stable union, usually between two people, who may or may not be co-residential, sexually involved, and procreative with each other. • It always involves a rite of passage- social transition, change in social role • Contrasts with prototypical deﬁnition of marriage - “Involves a man and a woman…” L&S pg. 160 • Criteria for Deﬁning Marriage: - Numbers of people involved - gender/sexual orientation of people involved - Functions of relationship- sexual intercourse, legitimacy of children, shared property, co-residence? Rules for Finding a Marriage Partner - Rules of Exclusion: rules that govern who you cannot or should not marry/ procreate with, often codiﬁed (put into legal form), can have a biological component - Preference Rules: less formalized, attraction, personal/subjective Exclusion Rule: The Incest Taboo - All cultures have some form of incest taboo - An incest taboo forbids sexual intercourse and/or marriage between certain kin - Cultural variation in which kin are excluded - Lévi-Strauss linked the incest taboo with the origin of exchange among humans - More restrictive you are, the greater motivation to create greater social/economic bonds outside of the family - More diverse genetic material, in general, is a good thing (congenital disease that passes down, ex. hemophilia, etc.) Cousin Marriage - Forbidden in some cultures - Preferred in some cultures • Material wealth can accumulate through these connections • Various deﬁnitions of what is a cousin • Various patterns of preference - For cousins on which “side” of the family (mother’s or father’s) - Cross-cousins- any cousin - Parallel cousins- children of brothers Endogamy and Exogamy as Preference Rules - Endogamy: (in-marriage) marriage within a particular religion or social category • reinforcing lines of caste, class, or religion - Exogamy: (out-marriage) marriage outside a particular region or social category • building alliances • more legal prohibitions - In terms of class, where does class enter in the USA? Is there more exogamy or endogamy? Endogamy, class likeness, class structure is maintained by how people come into proximity, tends to be a common practice to marry within social class Range of Cultural Preferences for Spouse/Partner Selection - Kinship - Location - Ethnicity - Status/Economic Position - Looks (beauty, height, FGC, etc.) - Physical Ability - Romantic Love Where to Live? - Neolocal: new partners set up an entirely new household at place of their choosing; common in individualistic societies; career opportunities - Patrilocal: new partners live with (or near) husband’s father. Most common around world, associated with partilineal societies - Matrilocal: new partners live with (or near) the wife’s mother, not as common, associated with matrilineal societies Forms of Marriage - Monogamy: marriage between two people • Most common form of marriage cross-culturally - Polygamy: (plural marriage) marriage between multiple spouses • Polygyny: one man and more than one woman • Polyandry: one woman and more than one man (most rare) - While polygamy might be legal, it may not be as socially supported Getting Married - Often involved a series of gift/monetary exchanges between the bride’s and groom’s family (bride wealth, bride service, dowry) - The wedding: ranges from very simple to highly elaborate and expensive - Weddings “crystalize” and highlight cultural meanings of the marital relationship and gender roles - Growing industry, reﬂects importance of marriage within society, but more the importance of consumption in our society Family vs. Household: Related Concepts - Family: group of people who consider themselves related by kinship - Household: person or persons who may live together, but may or may not be related by kinship - Why are these relationships being formed? • economic costs/ need to share resources, alliance building through parties, resource sharing/prohibition of sharing- food, utilities, division of labor for upkeep of household Three Household Forms - Nuclear: • One or two adults earning/ providing with their unmarried children • Common worldwide but not universally the preferred form • Found among foragers and industrial/informatics groups - Polygamous: • Husband, co-wives, and their children • Complexities of the relationships between co-wives and among half-siblings - Extended: • More common among horticulturalists, pastoralists, agriculturalists • May be extended vertically through parent and sons/ daughters or horizontally through siblings • Provides safety net for child care and old age support • huge economic beneﬁts due to more earning/ providing adults Families by Choice - Term used by LGBTQA community and families that are not the product of heterosexual marriage - not following prototypical deﬁnition of family/ marriage, but a more realistic sense of how families are comprised - Linked to the idea of “kinship by nurturance” - Linked to struggles for legal rights and representation enjoyed by heterosexual families Intrahousehold Dynamics • Spouse/Partner Relationships • Marital satisfaction differs in love matches and arranges marriages • Sibling Relationships • Understudied aspect of household dynamics - What happens inside the household: • Work • Reproduction • Care, Love • Leisure, fun • Other, abuse, violence, etc. Divorce - Socially recognized way to dissolve a marriage - Made more complex when it involves others or other exchange systems (bride wealth, etc.) - Grounds for divorce and who can initiate divorce vary by society - Religion plays huge role in norms, codiﬁed or not codiﬁed Change in Marriage - New forms of courtship due to new forms of technology - Age at ﬁrst marriage is rising higher, as well as age at which ﬁrst child born - Marriage “crisis” - Wedding style • Globalization of the “Western wedding” • Some counter trends toward “ethnic” or traditional styles • Wedding style syncretism
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