HIST 111, Chapter 13 Notes and Final Info
HIST 111, Chapter 13 Notes and Final Info History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
HIST 111: United States History to 1865 Chapter 13 – The Sectional Crisis Introduction Constant resistance from enslaved men and women required a strong proslavery government to maintain order Northern and southern citizens disagreed about the governments role in returning runaway slaves Sectionalism in the Early Republic Enslaved workers had been accepted since before the American revolution o Gave rise to revolutionary new ideals as political theorists began to re-think natural law justifications for slavery In the US, France, and Haiti revolutionaries began the work of splintering the old order o America declared “All men are created equal” o French issued the “Declaration of Rights and Man and Citizen” o Haitian slaves revolted in 1803 Haitian Revolution marked an early origin of the sectional crisis o Shattered the assumption that slaves could not also be rulers American military service on behalf of both the English and American army during the American Revolution freed thousands of slaves o As a result free black communities emerged Breakdown over slavery occurred over a long timeline across a broad geography As the US pressed westward questions arose as to whether lands should be free or slave o Constitution said little about this Congress admitted Vermont (1791) and Kentucky (1792) as one free and one slave state Louisiana Purchase of 1803 more than doubled the size of the US and people fought over whether this land should be slave or free Invention of the cotton gin (1793) also put pressure on the expansion of slavery Ohio Valley became an early line in the sectional struggle o KY and TN were slave states while OH, IN, and IL were free Borderland negotiations along the Ohio River became known as “Black Laws” o Banned African American voting, denied blacks admission to public schools, and made it impossible for non-whites to serve on juries and local militias Missouri Territory marked a turning point in the sectional crisis o ST Louis was a powerful trade headquarters In 1817 Congress opened its debate over Missouri’s admission to the Union o Tallmadge of NY proposed laws to gradually abolish slavery Southern states were outraged Heny Clay worked to find a compromise o Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri would be a slave state o Legislators didn’t want further conflicts so they made Missouri’s southern border 36/30 which became the dividing line between slavery and freedom in the Louisiana Purchase Missouri Compromise drew national attention to the increasing problem of sectionalism There was increasingly heated debates over the intention of the framers with phrases such as “All men are created equal” Pro Slavery people cited these parts of the constitution o Article 1, Section 2 of the constitution said enslaved people were 3/5 of a voter o Also said congress wouldn’t interfere with the slave trade before 1808 Anti-Slavery people cited these parts of the constitution o Constitution never used the word “slave” o Framers hoped thavery would end in 1808 o Believed 10 amendment meant slavery could be banned in the territories o Pointed to due process clause of the 5 amendment which said that property could be seized through appropriate legislation The Crisis Joined Compromise created a new sectional consensus that most white Americans hoped would ensure lasting peace Rebellion led by Denmark Vesey in 1822 threatened lives and property throughout the Carolinas Inspired by the social change of Jacksonian democracy white men, regardless of status, would gain thr right to vote, attend public schools, ect Huge numbers of western, southern, and northern workingmen rallied during the 1828 Presidential election behind Andrew Jackson Northerners especially friendly to the south became known as “Doughfaces” during the Missouri debates o Greatly hurt democrats o Accusation that northern democrats were lap dogs for southern slaveholders Major party challenge to the Democrats arose with the Whigs o Stressed protestant culture, federal-sponsored internal improvements, and courted the support of a variety of reform movements including temperance, Nativism, and even antislavery Lincoln was initially attracted to the Whig party o Admired Whig leader Henry Clay of Kentucky o Blamed Democrats for defending slavery at the expense of the American people Antislavery was not part of the Whig platform so a true antislavery party was formed, Liberty Party o Demanded the end to slavery in DC, ending the interstate slave trade, and prohibition of slavery’s further expansion into the west o Shunned women’s participation in the movement Gag rule prohibited discussion of antislavery petitions Entrance of Arkansas and Michigan kept the balance between slave and free states Independent Texas soon gained recognition from Andrew Jackson, but next president Van Buren had reasons to worry about the Republic of Texas The debates over Texas statehood illustrated that the federal government had at last moved in a clear proslavery direction o Also worried about the admission of Florida as a slave state Texas President Sam Houston gained admission to the Union for Texas in 1845 1840s had many upsetting moments for antislavery leaders o Prigg v PA (1842) ruled that the Fugitive Slave Act trumped PA’s personal liberty law Fredrick Douglass was an escaped slave who sparked the controversy over escaped slaves o As a child he learned how to read and write and used these skills to escape from slavery when he was 19 (1837) o Wrote an autobiography in 1845 1846 signaled new reversals to the antislavery cause and the beginnings of a dark new era in American politics Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men Conclusion of the Mexican War signified the start to the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo o Infuriated antislavery leaders in the US o Mexico would cede CA and New Mexico for $15 million Huge sum of land Free Soil Party was formed to try and make sure land was free o Both Whigs and Democrats nominated proslavery southerners for 1848 election o Quickly evolved into the “Conscience Whigs” Called for a convention in Buffalo, NY o Platform bridged the eastern and western leadership together and called for an end to slavery in DC and a halt on slavery’s expansion in the territories o Won a dozen house seats and one senate seat in Ohio, Salmon P. Chase In congress they could swing power to either the Whigs or Dems Congressional leaders like Henry Clay and newer leaders like Stephen A Douglass were asked to draft a compromise to bridge diverging interests o Clay eventually left Washington disheartened o Douglass was able to get the “Compromise of 1850” to pass Compromise of 1850 worsened the sectional crisis o Gave more power to citizens to return runaway slaves o New Mexico and Utah would be allowed to determine their own fate based on popular sovereignty o Allowed territories to submit suits directly to the Supreme Court over the status of fugitive slaves within its bounds o CA came in as free o Slave trade was banned in DC but was not full emancipation o Texas was asked to give some of its land to New Mexico Fugitive Slave act upset many by creating special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without benefit of a jury, trial, or even court testimony o Massive expansion of federal power o Undermined local and state laws There was lots of corruption b/c federal commissioners were paid $10 if the defendant was found a slave and $5 if they are free o Many black northerners went to Canada 1852 election ended the Whig party 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin which aided antislavery efforts o Reinforced many racist stereotypes 1853, Nebraska Territory extended from northern end of Texas to the Canadian Border o Douglas wanted to complete a national railroad through Chicago Salmon P Chase drafted a response saying the Kansas- Nebraska Bill was going to be used to overturn the Missouri Compromise and open up land to slavery The status of Kansas would be up to local elections o Many migrants flooded the state to protect or stop slavery Ordinary Americans resisted what they believed to be pro-slavery federal government on their own terms Anthony Burns was a 20-year-old preacher who worked in a Boston clothing shop and was clubbed and dragged to jail b/c he had escaped slavery a year earlier o Word of his capture spread and Bostonians rioted o Killed a deputy US Marshall o Federal government sent soldiers and placed Boston under Martial Law Troops lined the streets of Boston as burns was marched to a ship where he was sent back to slavery o Took $40,000 to reenslave Burns o Abolitionists paid $1,300 to return him to freedom New England Emigrant Aid Society provided guns and other goods for pioneers willing to go to Kansas and establish the territory as antislavery o Politics was becoming militarized 1855 nearly derailed the northern antislavery coalition, Know- Nothing party turned attention to anti immigration efforts o Made impressive gains in New England and the Middle Atlantic Republican Party launched in Pittsburgh in o Charles Sumner was beaten with a cane on the floor of the Senate chamber by Brooks of SC after an explosive speech before congress Accused the assaulter’s cousin a senator named Butler of protecting slavery to assault black women Violence in Washington paled against the murders in Kansas o Abolitionist John Brown murdered several pro-slavery Kansans 1856 Republicans chose John Fremont to run for office o was defeated 1854 Lincoln carved out a message that summed up the main ideas and visions of the Republican party and eventually committed to the Fremont campaign From Sectional Crisis to National Crisis For those in slavery the news of Fremont’s defeat was harder to take, believing they would never gain freedom Kansas had issues with voting fraud and despite voting to come into the Union as a free state, the federal government refused to recognize their votes and instead recognized a sham pro-slavery legislature o “Bleeding Kansas” was poof that sectionalism was becoming a national crisis Buchanan’s Presidency was defined by the Dred Scott decision, Scott v. Sanford o Blacks could not be citizens of the US o National government seemed to commit to extending slavery as far and as wide as it might want 1857 Buchanan sent US military forces to Utah hoping to subdue the Mormon community Illinois Senate race in 1858 put the scope of the sectional crisis on full display o Republican Lincoln challenged Democrat Douglas Lincoln lost Browns raid on October 16 was terrible and was two days long before Robert E Lee ended it o Brown went to the gallows and many northerners showed sympathy for him This angered southerners Republicans did not want to be associated with Brown and trued to portray themselves as moderates For the 1860 election democrats tried to save their splintering party by running Stephen A Douglas from Illinois Republicans made antislavery platform clear and nominated Lincoln o Won the election with 40% of the popular vote o Within days southern states were organizing secession conventions John J Crittenden of KY proposed a series of compromises but had little chance of gaining Republican acceptance o Wanted renewed enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law and to keep slavery in the nations capital December 20 SC voted to secede and issued its “Declaration of the Immediate Causes” o Claimed large reason being states rights
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