Intro to Anthropology, Week 13 of Notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 13 of Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
ANTH 1101 – Week 13 Chapter 7 domestication – human interference with the reproduction of another species, with the result that specific plants and animals become more useful to people and dependent on them ecological niche –any species’ way of life: what it eats and how it finds mates, raises its young, relates to companions, and protects itself from predators evolutionary niche – sum of all the natural selection pressures to which a population is exposed niche construction – when an organism actively perturbs the environment or when it actively moves into a different environment, thereby modifying the selection pressures it is subject to agriculture - the systematic modification of the environments of plants and animals to increase their productivity and usefulness agroecology – the systematically modified environment (or constructed niche) that becomes the only environment within which domesticated plants can flourish sedentism - the process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place broad-spectrum foraging – a subsistence strategy based on collecting a wide range of plants and animals by hunting, fishing, and gathering social stratification – a form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige Neolithic – the “New Stone Age,” which began with the domestication of plants 10,300 years ago egalitarian social relations – social relations in which no great differences in wealth, power, or prestige divide members from one another surplus production – the production of amounts of food that exceed the basic subsistence needs of the population occupational specialization – specialization in various occupations (e.g., weaving or pot making) or in new social roles (e.g., king or priest) that is found in socially complex societies class – a ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria complex societies – societies with large populations, an extensive division of labor, and occupational specialization monumental architecture – architectural constructions of a greater-than-human scale, such as pyramids, temples, and tombs grave goods – objects buried with a corpse concentrations of particular artifacts – sets of artifacts indicating that particular social activities took place at a particular area in an archaeological site when that site was inhabited in the past sherds – pieces of broken pots bloodwealth – material goods paid by perpetrators to compensate their victims for their loss Lecture – April 6 gender, age, shaman - social distinctions in !Kung society 2 ways of developing hierarchies elementary – every human group has these distinctions available (age, gender) derived – based on features that social formations may or may not have available to them; derived from development of agriculture (class, urban/rural, hereditary status, ethnicity, division of labor) agriculture – consists of domestication and cultivation/husbandry domestication – the systematic genetic alteration of plants and animals to make them more suitable for human use criteria for domesticating wild grass tough rachis increase number of seeds bigger seeds weaker seed coat domesticating a boar: get rid of tusks increase size decrease speed decrease intelligence field = artificial ecosystem increased instability protecting crop surplus – having more than you need, derived hierarchy is based on this benefits of agriculture: can support larger groups cost of agriculture: more work, more risk, ownership Greece/Turkey foraging – 15,000 years ago avg. height men – 5’9” gvg. height women – 5’5” agriculture – 3,000 B.C.E. avg. height men – 5’3” avg. height women – 5’ Dickson’s Mounds – Native American burial site in Illinois Foraging – 950 B.C.E. – varied diet, 2-3 people per square mile Agriculture – 1100 B.C.E. – maize and tools fund Agriculture – 1200 B.C.E. – 25 people per square mile; health effects: bacterial infections, porotic hyperostosis; degenerative conditions (26% foraging to 84% agriculture). Trauma/parry fractures (15% forg. to 33% ag.), decreased rate of growth below the age of 5, hypoplasia in tooth enamel (50% forg. to 80% ag.), life expectancy at birth decreased from 26 years to 19 years Cahokia – population of 30,000; 100 km south of Dickson’s Mounds
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