Introduction to Modernism
Introduction to Modernism ARHI 2400
Popular in History of Art Survey, Part II
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessika Song on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 2400 at University of Georgia taught by Beth Fadeley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see History of Art Survey, Part II in Art History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Introduction to Modernism Important Deﬁnitions modern: of or relating to the present modernity: also, modern era. A period of momentous shifts in attitude, historical processes and dramatic technological changes beginning in Europe during the 16th century. modernization: processes of urbanization, democratization, industrialization, secularization, capitalism, etc. that took place in the West during the modern era. modernism: a movement in Western art that developed in the second half of the 19th century and sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age. postmodernism: the reaction to or a resistance against the projects of modernism which began with the rupture in representation that occurred during the late 1960s. - At this time, Europeans viewed themselves as “modern,” ahead of their time, and thus, looked to the future. - The modern age is a paradox, because now, it’s not technically “modern.” - The Renaissance and movements away from monarchical authority, as well as the development of science, etc. were seen as the beginning of the modern age. Paris in the late 19th century - This is when Paris became the capital of the fashion world. - People no longer required a lot of money to wear fashionable clothing — social classes began to meld together (at least visually) because of factories and the mass production of clothing. Timeline: Revolutionary France 1789 French Revolution ends rule of monarchy going back to 9th century; followed by establishment of the First Republic 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte leads coup to overthrow government; consolidates position with new constitution 1804-1814 Napoleon crowns himself emperor of First French Empire; series of military successes bring most of continental Europe under his control 1815 Napoleon defeated in Battle of Waterloo; monarchy reestablished with the Bourbon Restoration 1830 July Revolution; conservative House of Bourbon is overthrown and replaced by the more liberal July Monarchy; Louis-Phillippe crowned King of France 1848 Fall of King Louis-Phillippe ; Louis-Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed president of Second Republic 1852-1870 Louis-Napoleon takes title of Napoleon III in Second Empire 1870-1871 The Franco-Prussian War marks the downfall of Napoleon III and the end of the Second Empire March-May The Paris Commune 1871 Aug. 31 Adolphe Thiers begins his term as president of the Third Republic 1871 Houseman’s Renovation of Paris, 1853-1870 - Napoleon III tries to modernize Pairs during his reign - Baron Georges-Eugène Haussman (1809-1891) was chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks, and public works in Paris. - The introduction of gas lamps on the streets, for safety, also introduced the night world — demimonde (French, half-world) — an important cultural component of Paris. - Also introduced plumbing and a new aqueduct to increase the supply of water. Paris Commune, March-May 1871 - After the Second Empire is defeated (Napoleon III is out of power), a socialist revolutionary group took over as the Third Republic — at war with Prussia. - Created barricades by tearing up the cobble streets - Insurrection of Paris against the French government — occurred in the wake of France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the collapse of Napoleon III’s Second Empire. avant-garde: French, meaning “advance guard.” Late 19th and 20th century artists who emphasized innovation and challenged established convention in their work. Included the Realists, Impressionists, and Post-Impressionists. Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) - Writer and author of Les Fleurs du Mal and The Painter of Modern Life - Also good friends with Edouard Manet A Bar at the Folies-Bergère - Manet starts to depict the city and develops an interest in painting and ﬂatness - This painting is an example of when Manet is working in a more impressionistic style. Manet was largely associated with the Impressionists, but he never joined the actual organization — it was just his style that was impressionistic and painterly. - Depicting a nightclub in which it is obvious that the woman is a working-class member and the man is upper-class/ﬂâneur. - Division between genders, class, commodities of sexuality (prostitution, alienation, urban crime). - The man in the reﬂection could be Manet or it could be the viewer — the perspective is skewed and creates ambiguity as to who is looking at whom. - The ﬂower on the woman’s shirt connotes sexuality/femininity, which makes the viewer a part of the exchange. ﬂâneur: French, meaning wanderer. One who walks around without a destination or plan. Clement Greenberg (1909-1994) - Stated that modernism is about ﬂatness and two-dimensionality, rather than the three- dimensionality that traditional artists, such as Velázquez, strived for.
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