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Psychology Notes-Memory parts 1&2

by: Lauren Thompson

Psychology Notes-Memory parts 1&2 PSYC-11762-001

Marketplace > Kent State University > Psychlogy > PSYC-11762-001 > Psychology Notes Memory parts 1 2
Lauren Thompson

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About this Document

These notes cover what is on Exam 3
General Psychology
Robin L. Joynes
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Thompson on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-11762-001 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
Memory (Part 1 and 2) Tuesday, April 12, 2016 4:10 PM Memory  The retention of information or experiences over time o Short term  1-2 seconds  As soon as you start a new thought you forget what you were working on o Long term  Critically important for life  Three key memory processes o Encoding  Writing it down, interpreting information and translating it so you can understand it  The first step in memory  This sometimes happens automatically  Certain things we encode very easily and other times we need to work at it o Encoding process  Selective attention  Focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others. Constantly working  Stimuli is competing for your attention  We need to pay attention to fully encode it  We are more likely to pay attention to stuff that interests us  We can only give our full attention to one thing at a time  Inattention leads to encoding failure  Levels of processing  A continuum of memory processing ranging from shallow processing to deep processing  Deep processing leads to better memory  Shallow processing  No meaning and only physical features are analyzed  Intermediate  There is recognition, you can give things labels but there is no comprehension  Deep  This is more meaningful and you can recognize characteristics o Elaboration  The web of connection, associations and relevant meanings given to a stimulus  This is connecting what you have learned to what you already know so then you are more likely to remember it o Mental Imagery  Creating a mental story or scene around stimuli that we would like to remember  Try and make up a story to remember and it gets encoded way faster o Dual code process  Memory is stored in two ways  Verbal code and picture code  Mental images are remembered better because it contains both picture and verbal codes o Storage  Filing it away  This is the 2nd step in memory  How is memory retained over time and represented in memory? o Atkinson-Schifrin model of memory  The box model  There are three stages  Sensory memory  Holds information in your mind for a very brief period of time  Where it first goes through, most of the information going in gets discarded unless you focus on it  2 different kinds  Echoic sensory memory  Auditory  Lasts several seconds  Iconic sensory memory  Visual  Lasts about a quarter of a second  Short term  Limited capacity memory system which stores information for about 30 seconds without effort  Your working memory starts processing what you focused on and captured in sensory memory, if you think about it long enough to goes to long term  Digital span test  We can only retain about 7 items  Plus or minus 2  We can trick our brain into remembering more if we chunk items together  Like remembering phone numbers  Effects of rehearsal  Stays around way longer  Effects of distraction  It will disappear  Working memory and its three parts  Central executive  Phonological loop  Visuospatial working memory  Long term  Last step in the memory storage process in which we can store unlimited amounts of information for a long time  This is when something in short term memory is thought about enough that it was encoded and you have filed it away for later  Problem of retrieval failure  When we cannot remember things even though we know it is stored in out memory somewhere  Two types of long term memory  Declarative or explicit  We are aware that we have these memories  For people, places, events, facts and dates  Who, what, were, when and why  Two different types  Episodic  Memory of events in your life  Autobiographical  Semantic  Memory about the world  General come knowledge that almost everybody knows  Nondeclarative or implicit  Not aware we have these  They influence our behaviors but we are not consciously aware that e have these  Classically conditioned response, subliminal information and skills  We know there are two types of LTM because of  Henry M.  Brain damage from an infection that destroyed his hippocampus  No ability to make new memories  Lives in the present  Clive Wearing  He has chronic retrograde and anterograde memory amnesia  He has no ability to form new memories and cannot recall some old ones o Retrieval  The process of bringing back information out of long term storage  Bringing it back out so you can reuse it  Last step in memory  Retrieval cues  Mean by which people retrieve information from long term memory, the more cues you have, the easier it is to remember  Context specific memory  People will recall information better if the context in which the information was learned is the same as when it was being recalled  If you are the same environment trying to retrieve information you are more likely to recall that information  Primacy Effect  We are more likely to remember items at the beginning of a list  Regency Effect  We are most likely to remember items at the end of the list  Things in the middle of lists tend to be forgotten  Flashbulb memories  Vivid memories for highly significant, traumatic or emotional experiences and events  For example: people can remember where they were and exactly what they were doing when they heard about 9/11  For me, I can remember where I was exactly when I found out a family friend had passed away  Easier to remember these memories because they are emotional and that is linked to the amygdala  Forgetting  As time passes we forgot  If something is meaningful to you it is easier to remember and harder to forget  Most forgetting happen in the first 20 minutes after you learn something  Interference is what causes us to have retrieval failure  Retroactive interference  New information interferes with our ability to remember old information  Remembering your old phone number is harder because you think of your new one  Proactive interference  Old information interferes with our ability to remember new information  All of our memories we cannot recall perfectly like the day that it happened  Memories are just reconstructions of the events that occurred on that day so that is why some of it is forgotten  Not everything was encoded  False Memories  Inaccuracies and distortions of our reconstructed memories that occur over time  When we retrieve a memory we sometimes "contaminate it" by the new stimuli and information that we have in the present o Amnesia  Infantile amnesia  Having no early memories, we don’t remember things from when we are young  Retrograde Amnesia  Cannot remember past memories  This often happens after suffering from a concussion  Anterograde Amnesia  Cannot form any new memories  No new long term memories can be stored


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