Psychology Notes- Cognition
Psychology Notes- Cognition PSYC-11762-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Thompson on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-11762-001 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Cognition (Part 1 and 2) Tuesday, April 12, 2016 5:03 PM Cognition Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information Its about organizing the thoughts in your brain o Comprehension Mental Imagery Mental representation that stands in for objects or events o Have a picture like quality in our minds eye o Imagination Why do we have this capacity to form mental images? o Helps aid in memory There are retrieval cues to help get the memory back out o We can predict and plan It helps us think about things and scenarios without us actually having to do them first Seeing what is going to work best Concepts Mental representation of a group or category We group objects, events, ideas that share similar characteristics o Everyone can have a different concept of something Important why? o Make life easier, more predictable How do we form them? o Artificial Arise out of logical rules or definitions Found in scientific disciplines Can be taught to us in school o Natural Categories that have general rules about what belongs we form a natural concepts as we grow and learn for ourselves Hierarchies o When an object fits into more than one category Superordinate category Broadest Mid-level categories Basic level concepts Subordinate Most specific Problem Solving Moving from a given state (problem) to a goal state (Solution) o We are constantly working to solve problems Everyday we do this without even thinking about it or realizing that we are doing it Steps to problem solving o Preparation Identifying given facts and separating relevant information form irrelevant information Defining your ultimate goal o Production Generating possible solution or hypotheses Two ways to do this Algorithms Step by step procedures that if appropriate will always result in the solution Heuristics Rule of thumb or educated guess This provides shortcuts to solutions This is your best guess This way does have increased errors though Means-end analysis o How much effort/money/time do you put in to get maximum benefit? In what way can you accomplish the most solution with the least amount of time and money? Working backwards o Start with examples of goal state and evaluate how it was attained Creating sub goals o Large problems are broken down into manageable steps Barriers to problem solving o Mental sets What has worked before You are so used to thinking about things in a certain way that we cant seem to get outside of the box and try something new o Functional Fixedness When you only view objects as whatever they work originally for and nothing else Sometimes they have more than one use o Confirmation Bias We see what we want to see People like to be right and when we come up with a solution to a problem we want people to use our solution Incubation o Some problems require a period in which we allow the most pertinent facts to come into focus, allowing the distracting and irrelevant information to fade from our minds Taking a step back to try and refocus Creativity The ability to produce valued outcomes in a new way o Trying to solve problems in a way that they haven't been solved before Divergent thinking o One main theme or idea that generates may different ideas How many ideas did you come up with and how original are they? Convergent thinking o Generating a single idea/theme/conclusion based on many ideas or pieces if information Ability to put a bunch of information into one theme or solution that will work Detectives given a lot of clues to solve a case Intelligence General capacity to benefit from experience to acquire knowledge and adapt to changes in the environment It is a hypothetical construct that is defined by tests used to measure it and the culture in which it exists o We absorb information we are exposed to Sometimes we do it more than others and other times we don’t do this Intelligence tests Dr. Alfred Binet o French psychologists that invented the first IQ test This was made to identify children that would struggle in school o Developed sets of questions that got harder and harder This tested the Childs mental age and then compared it to their actual age to see where they were o Intelligence quotient Comparing mental age with chronological age and multiplying it by 100 Now called the Stanford Binet test Wechsler tests o Developed different IQ tests specifically for adults and children Has a verbal score and performance (nonverbal) score and an IQ score Geared for different ages Divided into components Average score is 100 Means you are on track of where you should be Differences in IQ o Developmentally delayed Behavioral and cognitive skills are at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same age Special education o Gifted Behavioral and cognitive skills that are more than 2 standard deviations about the mean (IQ above 130) Spearman o G factor General intelligence, ability to reason and problem solve o S factor Specific intelligence, specials gifts in a certain areas Remember her example about her nephew and his ability to manipulate objects in space really well Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence o Analytical Learning information from books and explicit teaching o Creative Artistic people, writers, people who have original thoughts o Practical Hands on person, does better with hands then reading it in a book Gardner o Believed there were 9 different types of intelligence Verbal Mathematical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Existentialist Do not need to know all these for test….just know there are 9 of them Not a slide but we talked about the idea that intelligence is fixed or has the ability to flow o The idea that your IQ is what it is and it cant go up vs. the idea that you can grow your intelligence and it can get better
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