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Pre-Modern World History, Week 12 Notes

by: Sierra Notetaker

Pre-Modern World History, Week 12 Notes HIST-1111

Marketplace > Augusta State University > Global Studies > HIST-1111 > Pre Modern World History Week 12 Notes
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These notes cover what we went over week 12.
Pre-Mod World Civilization
Sandrine Catris
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST-1111 at Augusta State University taught by Sandrine Catris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Pre-Mod World Civilization in Global Studies at Augusta State University.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
Week 12 Notes March 28-30 Wednesday: Islamic History  The Islamic people (before Muhammad) were originally an urban society of nomadic people who worshipped many gods. Each tribe worshipped a different god.  Byzantine was a large and wealthy Christian Empire.  The Sassanian and Zoroastrian Empires were neighboring the Eastern Roman Empire.  In the Hijaz: Mecca was a diverse trade center; people on the Arabian Peninsula were polytheistic; the holy Ka’ba was a location where Muslims went once a year (if they were financially and physically able) to participate in a religious pilgrimage. The Prophet Muhammad  Muhammad was an orphan from the Quraysh tribe; raised by Bedouins; traveled for his uncle in business; his first wife was a wealthy businesswoman and she was 15 years his senior.  Muhammad had his first alleged revelation at the age of 40 and started the Quran.  The Quran had a monotheistic message.  In 622 AD Muslims were forced out of Mecca and settled in Medina. The Muslims consider this to be the beginning of Islam. The 5 Pillars of Islam  1. There is no god but god (Allah) and Muhammad is his messenger.  2. Pray 5 times daily, facing Mecca.  3. Fast from sunup until sundown during the month of Ramadan.  4. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if able to.  5. Pay alms in the form of taxation that would alleviate the hardships of the poor. The Quran and the Hadiths  Hadith: Sayings attributed to the prophet Muhammad and his early converts. Used to guide the behavior of Muslim peoples.  If something isn’t in the Quran, the Muslim people look in the Hadith.  There was resistance to having the oral traditions written down—they feared that people would treat the hadith as a holy text. Islamic History  Muslims recognize Abraham as their forefather. They are descendants of Ishmael, who was Abraham’s son. His mother was an Egyptian servant.  Muslims recognize the same prophets as the Jews.  List of main prophets (according to Muslim belief): Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhamad. Status of Women in the Quran  The status of women developed into inequality as Muhammad developed the Muslim religion. Women were not allowed to have more than one husband (men were), divorce (men were), and were always veiled and isolated from society.  The Quran commanded men to treat each wife (if they took more than one) equally; women could inherit property (but only half of what men inherited).  The Quran is against abortion and women’s dowries went straight to the woman instead of her guardian. Adultery among women drew “harsh punishments,” (meaning death by stoning, drowning, burning, etc.) and it required “eyewitness testimony.”  Basically, men dominate over women. Muhammad’s Death and its Consequences  Muhammad’s death causes 2 chain reactions: 1) abandonment of the faith, 2) start of warfare.  Emergence of Muslim sections: Sunni; Shi’a; Shiite; Fatimid.  Apostasy has to do with faith.  Islam was weakened because of the constant warfare.  Byzantine was seen as corrupt and ruthless. The Umayyad, 651-750 AD First empire—Caliphate. Belief that only Arabic people can be Muslim; not universal. A Caliph was a religious and political leader. Umayyads portrayed Abbasids as irreligious and politically repressive. Turkic slaves converted to Islam. If someone is Muslim, it doesn’t necessarily mean they’re Arabic. And if someone is Arabic, it doesn’t necessarily mean they’re Muslim. However, during that time the majority of Muslims were Arabic. Abbasids, 750-1258 AD  Umma means believers.  The Abbasi family claimed to be descended from Muhammad.  The Abbasid Revolution: they conquered the Umayyad ruler in 750 AD.  “Ultimately, conversion to Islam rested on the zeal of evangelizers and the faith’s appeal to converts.”  Baghdad was one of the greatest cities: the center of religion, commerce, and education.  The Turkics were called Sultanate by the state because they had no relation to Muhammad. The Rise & Expansion of Islam  7 century tradition of tolerance.  Dhimmis are people of the book—people who follow Abrahamic traditions; includes Hinduism & Zoroastrianism because of religious tolerance—less likely to oppose Muslim rule. Wealth Under Abassids  Baghdad was the center that connected China, India, Africa, and the Mediterranean world.  Urban life flourished and merchants became wealthy.  Agriculture grew.  Well cultured and productive in the arts and sciences. Islamic Arts & Sciences  Arts and sciences flourished under Abbasid rule.  Local rulers were patrons of the arts and sciences to show that their political aspirations were grounded in high Islamic culture as they tried to detach from the Abbasids. Recovering & Questioning Ancient Knowledge The Abbasid Caliph, Al-Ma Mun, started a movement to restore ancient knowledge. Arab Scholars acquired knowledge from ancient Greek philosophers and physicians and from Indian Mathematicians and philosophers. They translated them and made Arabic copies. Muslim empires maintained ancient knowledge. Ibn Sina  Ibn Sina was a philosopher known for medical research.  He was born in Bukhara in 980 AD (which is in Pakistan.)  He was a Persian physician that traveled to different courts and was an influential scholar.  People translated his work.  He studied Aristotle and commented on it.  He is used as an example of Islam in Global Civilization. Jihad & Shari’ah  Jihad means struggle, internal or external. Basic original meaning: Striving in the path of god: inner struggle of sin or efforts for good or against non-Muslims to protect/expand territories under Muslim rule.  Shari’ah: 8 -10 century AD legal system that is compatible with faith and government. They used judges. Shari’ah has changed. There are 4 sources used: the Quran; Tradition of the prophet; quiyar (analogy)—for Shi’a Islam it is aql (intellect.); ijma (consensus.)  Today’s Shari’ah is modern, it has changed. The Ulama  The Ulama is a broad term for all scholars.  No priesthood.  No intermediaries between individuals and god.  Ulama (those who know): well informed of other things, not just Islamic things; Teachers; Guardians of high scholarly tradition; Legal experts who advised in politics; Mosque preachers and prayer leaders. Sunni Muslims  Leaders were just regular men and not divine. They had temporal leadership.  There is no interference with the Ulama. Shi’a Muslims  Believes Muhammad’s cousin, Ali, was the “messenger,” the correct prophet.  Follows Ali.  Twelvers—Jafaris—largest group. Sufism  In the Pre-Modern period, Sufism was the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. It was an easier way of thinking about and approaching god. They’d meditate and preach.  One of the main reasons central Asia converted.  There was fragmentation of the Muslim world.  Fatimads were challengers to Abbasid Shiites and seized power in the 10 century AD.  Trade networks grew between Africa and Arabia. Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD): 1 Muslims came to China. The Tang Dynasty reunited China and restored centralized imperial war. Islam and the Tang were 2 central powers. Tang Dynasty as Cosmopolitan  Diversity among religions  Absorb western ideals  Religious tolerance&use  Later on persecuted Buddhists. Growth of Buddhism in China  Thrived in the Tang Dynasty: 1 of 3 ways to rule (other two being Daoism and Confucianism.)  There was an Anti-Buddhist campaign mid-Tang dynasty. Confucian scholars felt threatened because they feared having less influence and became weak. So they persecuted Buddhists. They claimed Buddhists broke their traditions because some did not get married and some shaving their heads.


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