PSYC Ch. 13 notes
PSYC Ch. 13 notes PSYC 10213
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
PSYC Ch. 13 notes Personality: An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Psychoanalytic Perspective: In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes. Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms. Other Freud observations: He believed that we have a reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious. Dream Analysis: Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams. Manifest : plot Latent: symbols Psychoanalysis: The process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories are retrieved and released (treatment: psychoanalysis) the patient feels better. Model of mind: The mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden, and below the surface lays the unconscious mind. The preconscious stores temporary memories. Personality Structure: Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego). Id: cake, I want it! Super ego: no I cant have cake it’s unhealthy… Ego: the mediatory between the id and the superego. (might decide to only have the cake after dinner) Id, Ego, and Superego: The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. The ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego. The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Personality Development: Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones. 5 stages: Oedipus Complex: A boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex. (Freud believed that this is how we developed our gender identity) Identification: Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values. Defense Mechanisms: The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (push conscious things to your unconscious)ex: Kyla 2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage. 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex. 4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. Ex: “you always do this!!” (when you’re the one who actually does it) 5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. Ex: deciding you should eat ice cream because you need the calcium. 6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. Ex: when your boss makes you mad so you take your anger out at home. The Neo-Freudians (The New Freudians): Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with an inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy.” She thinks men have “womb envy.” Jung believed in the collective unconscious, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturing. Assessing Unconscious Processes: Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind’s perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. (Showing a card to a client and they’re asked to explain the card) Rorschach Inkblot Test: The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to). 1. When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability). 2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity). Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective: Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind. The majority of children, death camp survivors, and battle- scarred veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind. Humanistic Perspective: By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud’s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists. Self-Actualizing Person: Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualization—fulfilling our potential. Person-Centered Perspective: Carl Rogers also believed in an individual's self-actualization tendencies. He said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings. Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective: Humanistic psychology has a pervasive impact on counseling, education, child rearing, and management with its emphasis on a positive self-concept, empathy, and the thought that people are basically good and can improve. The Trait Perspective: An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality. Examples of traits: honest, dependable, moody, and impulsive. Factor Analysis: Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion- introversion and emotional stability-instability. Unstable -> stable Introverted-> extroverted Assessing Traits: Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once. MMPI: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders. The MMPI was developed by empirically testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminated between diagnostic groups. The Big Five Factors: Today’s trait researchers believe that earlier trait dimensions, such as Eysencks’ personality dimensions, fail to tell the whole story. So, an expanded range (five factors) of traits does a better job of assessment. 1. Conscientiousness 2. Agreeableness 3. Neuroticism (emotional stability vs. instability) 4. Openness 5. Extraversion The Person-Situation Controversy: Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same. Therefore, traits matter. Social-Cognitive Perspective: Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context. Personal Control: Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, whether we control the environment or the environment controls us. External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. Ex: lucky socks. Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. Learned Helplessness: When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness. Optimism vs. Pessimism: An optimistic or pessimistic attributional style is your way of explaining positive or negative events. Positive psychology aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive. Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology: Positive psychology, such as humanistic psychology, attempts to foster human fulfillment. Positive psychology, in addition, seeks positive subjective well-being, positive character, and positive social groups. Exploring the Self: Research on the self has a long history because the self organizes thinking, feelings, and actions and is a critical part of our personality. (read in book on this and self esteem) 1. Research focuses on the different selves we possess. Some we dream and others we dread. 2. Research studies how we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance, performance, and blunders (spotlight effect).
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