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Week 10 Notes

by: Victoria Miller

Week 10 Notes HY 362

Victoria Miller

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About this Document

Week 10 of Notes covering the end of Stalin
Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Margaret Peacock
Class Notes
history, Russian Revolution, Soviet Union, Western Civ, Stalin
25 ?




Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
Week 10 4/5/16 Stalin’s End  “Life has become more joyful” o People hope for a new life, but instead they witness a return to collectivization, heavy industry, housing shortages, and the cult of personality  Stalin o The Cult of Personality solidified  Andrei Zhdanov o Leningrad o Attacks art community and anyone that doesn’t uphold Socialist Realism  The Zhdanovshchina (The Zhdanov Doctrine) o Socialist Realism – rules for art  Typical  Realistic  Proletarian  Understandable by the working class  Partisan  Has to promote the aims of the Party/State  Leningrad Affair and the Doctor’s Plot o Zhdanov’s death and the Leningrad Plot  The Cold War in the Soviet Union o Marked up by an upsurge of officially promoted nationalism  Everything foreign gets condemned  Kinda like McCarthyism in the US  Anti-Semitism  Everything Russian is the greatest ever  Stalin is dead (thank god) o March 5, 1953 o If Baria wasn’t behind it, he was behind allowing Stalin to die o Stalin’s heirs and their inheritance  What problems did they inherit?  The management of power  The Gulag  Economics o Continue with industrialization?  Social tensions  Minority tensions  Foreign policy o China? o Germany division problem o Joseph Tito, Yugoslavian leader  The budget o Can’t spend that much money on weapons you will never fire  The Struggle for Succession o Malenkov vs. Baria vs. Molotov vs. Khrushchev?  Baria comes out as a reformer after Stalin’s death  The others have Baria tried for Stalinist Terror and have him shot  After Baria’s elimination, Malenkov and Khrushchev take opposing stances on the issues of production, agriculture (the Virgin Land Program), the prospects of nuclear war, and the size of bureaucracy  Malenkov says if there was a nuclear war, Russia would be destroyed o Khrushchev wins because he’s more charismatic and has friends in higher places  Once he seizes power, he switches all his stances Khrushchev Part II (Where Khrushchev Gets Mad and Bangs his Shoe) 4/7/16  More Stalin, yay! o Yalta  Why didn’t we kick the Russians out of Eastern Europe?  They were already there  They had lost 20 million men by this point  They were pretty much the reason we won WWII  We also recognized that Russia needed its buffer States o Cold War skirmishes begin  Truman Doctrine  We send lots of money to Greece and Turkey o Why?  Because there lots of communists there  Why is there lots of communists there? o Everyone is poor o The Soviets won WWII o Fascism is debunked as an ideology is debunked and is the ultimate culmination of capitalism  Republican controlled Congress o The only way Truman ca convince them to send money is to say if they don’t, the communists will win! And take over  The Marshall Plan  Plan to rebuild Europe  $14 billion loan from US  To stop the rise of communism o Offered to Stalin as well but he is insulted and turns it down  Comecon  Soviet equivalent of the Marshall Plan  Move all industry from Eastern Europe back into Russia to help with Russian recovery o German Question  Berlin Airlift, 1948  Stalin shuts down the Berlin corridor  Ultimately, Stalin fails o NATO (1948) and the Warsaw Pact (1955)  Moment when the Cold War becomes militarized  Warsaw Pact  Soviet version of NATO o New communist faces: Tito, Korea, and Mao’s Chinese Communist Revolution  Mao and Tito refuse to play second fiddle to Stalin  Khrushchev – a peace maker? A war monger? Idk o Russians find capitalism aggressive and hell bent on their destruction  “capitalist encirclement” o Vietnam  The French lose in 1954 to the North Vietnamese and Ho Chi Min o Poland, 1954  Khrushchev a war monger?  Khrushchev said Stalin sucked and we need to be more open in order to be a great country  Polish are pissed about being occupied by the Soviets, so they try to reform and Khrushchev threatens to send in the tanks o Hungary, 1956  Khrushchev actually sends in the tanks to quell revolt, 1,400 people die  Autocratic reformers often face populations who want pesky things like civil liberties and freedom o Kennedy: Cuba, Berlin  1961 – Berlin Wall is built as a consequence of a currency crisis  Revitalized deutschmark is devaluing Eastern currency  It wasn’t a solution but at least Berlin wasn’t in constant crisis anymore  Cuban Missile Crisis  Khrushchev ultimately backs off  Americans had to pull the missiles from Turkey o What can we say about Khrushchev’s foreign policy?  Incapable of seeing the long game  Ends up shaping how people understand the Cold War  Domestic Policy o The Thaw  Culture  Pomerantsev’s “On Sincerity in Literature” o “No matter how rich the method of varnished reality, they are easy to spot”  1. Fabrication of complete sincerity  2. Exclusion  3. Arbitrary Selection o Cautious Liberalism  Edict on the “over-zealousness of anti-religious activism”  Crypto de-Stalinization  Stalin becomes a non-person  Why?  It is impossible to ignore the problems Russia is facing, so blame Stalin  Allows people in power to distance themselves from the Stalinist Terror  Gulag in crisis o Slow rehabilitation o Uprisings at Norilsk, Steplag, Kolyma, Ozerlag  Hella volatile  Norilsk  1,000 + people died th  A massive criminal network o 20 Party Congress  Included new leadership, many of whom came through connections to Khrushchev  Khrushchev gave a secret speech  He addresses the realities of the Great Terror, Stalin’s errors in WWII, the deportations of populations o “On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences,” went on for 4 hours o Says it started in 1933, in order to not delegitimize all the industrialization that happened


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