Week 10 Notes
Week 10 Notes HY 362
Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Week 10 4/5/16 Stalin’s End “Life has become more joyful” o People hope for a new life, but instead they witness a return to collectivization, heavy industry, housing shortages, and the cult of personality Stalin o The Cult of Personality solidified Andrei Zhdanov o Leningrad o Attacks art community and anyone that doesn’t uphold Socialist Realism The Zhdanovshchina (The Zhdanov Doctrine) o Socialist Realism – rules for art Typical Realistic Proletarian Understandable by the working class Partisan Has to promote the aims of the Party/State Leningrad Affair and the Doctor’s Plot o Zhdanov’s death and the Leningrad Plot The Cold War in the Soviet Union o Marked up by an upsurge of officially promoted nationalism Everything foreign gets condemned Kinda like McCarthyism in the US Anti-Semitism Everything Russian is the greatest ever Stalin is dead (thank god) o March 5, 1953 o If Baria wasn’t behind it, he was behind allowing Stalin to die o Stalin’s heirs and their inheritance What problems did they inherit? The management of power The Gulag Economics o Continue with industrialization? Social tensions Minority tensions Foreign policy o China? o Germany division problem o Joseph Tito, Yugoslavian leader The budget o Can’t spend that much money on weapons you will never fire The Struggle for Succession o Malenkov vs. Baria vs. Molotov vs. Khrushchev? Baria comes out as a reformer after Stalin’s death The others have Baria tried for Stalinist Terror and have him shot After Baria’s elimination, Malenkov and Khrushchev take opposing stances on the issues of production, agriculture (the Virgin Land Program), the prospects of nuclear war, and the size of bureaucracy Malenkov says if there was a nuclear war, Russia would be destroyed o Khrushchev wins because he’s more charismatic and has friends in higher places Once he seizes power, he switches all his stances Khrushchev Part II (Where Khrushchev Gets Mad and Bangs his Shoe) 4/7/16 More Stalin, yay! o Yalta Why didn’t we kick the Russians out of Eastern Europe? They were already there They had lost 20 million men by this point They were pretty much the reason we won WWII We also recognized that Russia needed its buffer States o Cold War skirmishes begin Truman Doctrine We send lots of money to Greece and Turkey o Why? Because there lots of communists there Why is there lots of communists there? o Everyone is poor o The Soviets won WWII o Fascism is debunked as an ideology is debunked and is the ultimate culmination of capitalism Republican controlled Congress o The only way Truman ca convince them to send money is to say if they don’t, the communists will win! And take over The Marshall Plan Plan to rebuild Europe $14 billion loan from US To stop the rise of communism o Offered to Stalin as well but he is insulted and turns it down Comecon Soviet equivalent of the Marshall Plan Move all industry from Eastern Europe back into Russia to help with Russian recovery o German Question Berlin Airlift, 1948 Stalin shuts down the Berlin corridor Ultimately, Stalin fails o NATO (1948) and the Warsaw Pact (1955) Moment when the Cold War becomes militarized Warsaw Pact Soviet version of NATO o New communist faces: Tito, Korea, and Mao’s Chinese Communist Revolution Mao and Tito refuse to play second fiddle to Stalin Khrushchev – a peace maker? A war monger? Idk o Russians find capitalism aggressive and hell bent on their destruction “capitalist encirclement” o Vietnam The French lose in 1954 to the North Vietnamese and Ho Chi Min o Poland, 1954 Khrushchev a war monger? Khrushchev said Stalin sucked and we need to be more open in order to be a great country Polish are pissed about being occupied by the Soviets, so they try to reform and Khrushchev threatens to send in the tanks o Hungary, 1956 Khrushchev actually sends in the tanks to quell revolt, 1,400 people die Autocratic reformers often face populations who want pesky things like civil liberties and freedom o Kennedy: Cuba, Berlin 1961 – Berlin Wall is built as a consequence of a currency crisis Revitalized deutschmark is devaluing Eastern currency It wasn’t a solution but at least Berlin wasn’t in constant crisis anymore Cuban Missile Crisis Khrushchev ultimately backs off Americans had to pull the missiles from Turkey o What can we say about Khrushchev’s foreign policy? Incapable of seeing the long game Ends up shaping how people understand the Cold War Domestic Policy o The Thaw Culture Pomerantsev’s “On Sincerity in Literature” o “No matter how rich the method of varnished reality, they are easy to spot” 1. Fabrication of complete sincerity 2. Exclusion 3. Arbitrary Selection o Cautious Liberalism Edict on the “over-zealousness of anti-religious activism” Crypto de-Stalinization Stalin becomes a non-person Why? It is impossible to ignore the problems Russia is facing, so blame Stalin Allows people in power to distance themselves from the Stalinist Terror Gulag in crisis o Slow rehabilitation o Uprisings at Norilsk, Steplag, Kolyma, Ozerlag Hella volatile Norilsk 1,000 + people died th A massive criminal network o 20 Party Congress Included new leadership, many of whom came through connections to Khrushchev Khrushchev gave a secret speech He addresses the realities of the Great Terror, Stalin’s errors in WWII, the deportations of populations o “On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences,” went on for 4 hours o Says it started in 1933, in order to not delegitimize all the industrialization that happened
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