Chapter 13: Social Psychology
Chapter 13: Social Psychology Psych 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social Psychology We are social animals Social Psychology – the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Attribution Theory – explain behavior by crediting either situation or person’s disposition (Helder) o Attribution – a conclusion about the cause of an event Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency for observers, when analyzing others’ behaviors, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition o We tend to think a behavior demonstrates a trait o Study of women told to act either friendly or unfriendly and all participants attributed their actions to disposition even when they were informed that the woman was told to act that way Eastern cultures are more sensitive to situational attribution When we explain our own behavior, we are sensitive to situation o Attribute good actions to our own good reasons Reflecting on choice, people think others get what they deserve Our attributions have real consequences Actions and Attitudes Attitudes – feelings, often influenced by beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events o Can affect actions o Public attitudes affect public policies Persuasion efforts take two forms o Peripheral Route Persuasion – occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker’s attractiveness o Central Route Persuasion – occurs when people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts Situation and persuader can change attitudes and behavior Attitudes are more likely to affect behavior when external influences are minimal and attitude is stable, specific to the behavior and easily recalled Attitudes follow behavior FootintheDoor Phenomenon – tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request o Adjust attitudes to actions o Doing becomes believing Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Role – set of expectations in social position defining how one ought to behave o Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment – people took on the roles of either a prison guard or a prisoner and led them to act accordingly The guards were violent and mean toward the prisoners and the prisoners acted subordinate Even when pretending a role, we tend to adopt the attitudes and become the roles o Arranged marriages lead to love o The act of “losing oneself” in a role Cognitive Dissonance Theory – act to reduce discomfort and dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts and cognitions are inconsistent (Festinger) o Actions and attitudes clash so, to resolve this, we change our attitudes to fit our actions Cannot directly control feelings but can influence them by altering behavior Changes in behavior lead to changes in feelings about ourselves and others Mimicry and Conformity Unconsciously imitate other’s expressions, postures, and voice tones Conformity – adjust behavior and thinking to coincide with a group standard o Asch Line Experiment – college students were asked to pick a certain line out of the group and many answered wrongly when confederates answered wrongly 1/3 of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group Some mimicry is automatic o Adopting accents and grammar o Yawning o Empathetic shifts in mood o Adopt coping methods o Copycat People are more likely to conform when they o Feel incompetent and insecure o Are in a group of at least three people (medium sized) o Are in a group where everyone agrees (unanimous) o Admire the group’s status o Have not already committed to a response or belief o Know others are observing o Are from a culture that encourages respect for social standards Normative Social Influence – influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval and avoid disapproval Informational Social Influence – influence resulting from willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality Conformity rates are lower in individualist countries Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Milgram’s Obedience Experiments Milgram’s Shock Experiment – the participant or “teacher” gives increasing shocks to a confederate “student” for every wrong answer they give o While the teacher was egged on by the experimenter, the confederate screams in pain o More than 60% complied with the shocks until the final volt When under pressure to conform, we do things we’d never do To assume a person is being harmful is cruel and is fundamental attribution error Obedience was highest in the experiment when o Person giving orders was close and had authority o Authority figure supported by prestigious institution o Victim was distant and depersonalized o No role models for defiance Obedience can lead to harm but also heroism Others’ Effects on Behavior Social Facilitation – improved performance in simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of others o What we do well we do better with an audience while what one finds difficult is more difficult when being watched Social Loafing – the tendency when in a group to exert less effort when trying to attain a common goal than when one is individually accountable Causes of social loafing o Less accountability o Individual contributions are expendable o Free ride on others’ efforts Deindividuation – the loss of selfawareness or selfrestraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Phenomenon Social Context Effect of others Behavior Psychologically Social Facilitation Being observed Increased arousal Dominant behavior is individually amplified Social Loafing Group projects Diminished Decreased effort responsibility Deindividuation Group of arousal and Reduce self Low selfrestraint anonymity awareness Group Polarization and Groupthink Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Group Polarization – the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group o Beliefs become more extreme when discussed with likeminded others Separation + Conversation = Polarization Groupthink – a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives o It is more enjoyable to follow the group o Fed by overconfidence, conformity, selfjustification, and group polarization Social and personal control interact Minority Influence – the power to sway majorities Prejudice and its Roots Prejudice – unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members o Generally involved stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action 1. Stereotypes – generalized belief about a group of people 2. Emotions 3. Predispositions to act/discriminate Stereotypes can exaggerate and bias behavior Discrimination – unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members Explicit prejudice (overt) wanes and subtle prejudice lingers Implicit prejudice (automatic) o Racially, occurs against blacks o Unconscious patronization o Raceinfluenced perceptions o Reflexive bodily responses More prejudice against women yet people feel more positively about women Sexual orientation prejudice leads to ill health JustWorld Phenomenon – the tendency for people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get o Social Inequality – groups have fewer opportunities and resources than others Social identities lead to contrast with other groups o Ingroup – “us” or the people with whom we share a common identity o Outgroup – “them” which is different and apart from the ingroup o Ingroup Bias – the tendency to favor your own group Scapegoat Theory – prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Categorize by race, we are drawn to the distinctions of minorities o Overestimate the homogeneity of other groups o OtherRace Effect – the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races Vivid cases are more readily available to memory and feed stereotypes o Availability Heuristic – stereotypes are built on vivid cases over statistics Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Thinking habits that reinforce bias lead to o Confirmation Bias – we don’t look for counters to our stereotypes o Hindsight Bias o Cognitive Dissonance Aggression and its Roots Aggression – any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally Genetics influence aggression Neural systems either inhibit or facilitate aggression o Damage to the frontal lobes increase aggression o Amygdala is stimulated Hormonal changes o More testosterone leads to irritability, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration o Alcohol leads to higher likelihood of violence FrustrationAggression Principle – principle that frustration (blocking of an attempt to achieve a goal) creates anger which creates aggression o Aversive stimuli evokes hostility Aggression through modelling and negative reinforcement The media models sexual and regular violence o Sexual aggression seems less serious o Rape myth o Coercion into sex o More harmful toward women o Social Scripts – culturally modelled guide for how to act in various situations Rely on them when we are unsure of how to behave Video games can prime aggressive thoughts, decrease empathy, and increase aggression Psychological Influences Biological Influences Dominating behavior Genes Biochemistry The belief that one ingested alcohol Frustration Neural influences Role models Aggressive Rewarded for aggression Behavior Low selfcontrol SocialCultural Influences Deindividuation Challenging environment Models Rejection Media Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Love and Friendship Proximity breeds liking o Mere Exposure Effect – repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them o Familiarity is safe and approachable Online relationships are slightly more likely to last and be satisfying Men are more transparent More options lead choices to become superficial o Women are more choosy Attractiveness influences first impressions o Women are more likely to say another’s looks don’t affect them o Attractiveness predicts how often people date and how popular they feel o Attractive people are happier, more sensitive, successful, and socially skilled o Attractiveness is unrelated to selfesteem and happiness o Less attractive people view praise as genuine o Women like men that are mature, dominant, and affluent while men that like women that look fertile o People with symmetry are more attractive o Attractive grows from knowing a person Friends are more likely to have things in common o We like when someone likes us o Reward Theory of Attraction – we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us Changes in Romantic Love over Time Attraction to passionate love to compassionate love to equality and selfdisclosure to support Passionate Love – aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually at the beginning of a love relationship o Emotions include physical arousal and cognitive appraisal o Arousal can enhance one emotion or another Companionate Love – deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Equity – people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it SelfDisclosure – revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Positive support Selfdisclosing intimacy + mutually supportive equity = enduring companionate love Helping Others Altruism – unselfish regard for the welfare of others o Helping and protecting others without need for personal gain Bystander Effect – tendency for bystanders to be less likely to give help if other bystanders are present o Diffusion of responsibility o Fewer help when others are available Best odds of helping someone occur when o Person appears to need or deserve help o Person is similar to us o Person is a woman o We just observed someone being helpful o We are not in a hurry o We are in a small town or rural area o We feel guilty o We are not preoccupied o We are in a good mood Most important factor Social Exchange Theory – social behavior is an exchange process to maximize benefits and minimize costs Reciprocity Norm – the expectation that people will help, not harm, those who have helped them Social Responsibility Norm – the expectation that people will help those needing their help Social Conflict Conflict – perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas between people or groups o Those in conflict tend to form diabolical images of each other Social Traps – a situation in which conflicting parties, by pursuing selfinterest over the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior MirrorImage Perceptions – mutual views often held by conflicting people as where each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive SelfFulfilling Prophecy – a belief that leads to its own fulfillment Transforming Feelings into Peace Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Positive contact (exposure, interaction, familiarity) can lead to acceptance of minority groups o The 4 C’s to resolve conflict – contact, cooperation, communications (with mediators), and conciliation o Heterosexual attitudes of gay people are influence by who and what they know o Indirect contact with an outgroup member can reduce prejudice Superordinate Goals – shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation GRIT – Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in TensionReductionStrategy designed to decrease international tensions
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