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CMN3 Week 3 Notes: Communicator Traits

by: Chelsea Supawit

CMN3 Week 3 Notes: Communicator Traits CMN3

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Communication > CMN3 > CMN3 Week 3 Notes Communicator Traits
Chelsea Supawit
GPA 3.778

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About this Document

Week 3 notes for Interpersonal Communication at UC Davis with Virginia Hamilton.
Interpersonal Communication
V. Hamilton
Class Notes
cmn3, CMN, Communications, UC, Davis, virginia, hamilton
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Supawit on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMN3 at University of California - Davis taught by V. Hamilton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
Communication Competence Communicative competence is the ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner. Competent communication involves two separate levels: ⿞Performative Competence: a surface level, consisting of the part of the competence that can actually be can seen—the actual performance of the day-to-day behaviors, and ⿞Process Competence: a deeper level, consisting of everything we have to know in order to perform.” In order to be a competent communicator one must know how to do five things well: Assign meaning to the world around them. (What is going on in this situation?) • Set goals strategically. (What do I want to achieve/make happen? How should I contribute?) • (Take on social roles appropriately. (What is my relationship to others in this situation? How do I maintain or enhance my social responsibility?) • Present a valued image of themselves. (How do I want others to view me in this situation?) • Generate intelligible messages. Trait Theories Trait theories: Focus on the “relatively enduring characteristics of individuals” and how they relate to communication-related behavior. • Communication apprehension • Aggression theory • Rhetorical sensitivity • Conversational Style • Immediacy Communication apprehension (James McCrosky; Michael Motley) • 85% of Americans report feeling feel apprehensive when speaking publicly. • • Fear of public speaking is usually at the top of the reported phobia lists • Most people feel some degree of anxiety when giving public speeches, but other contexts, such as small groups, one-on-one conversations, and mediated communication can also cause apprehension • The greater the level of fear, the higher the CA, and the more problematic it becomes for those who experience it. Three treatments for reducing CA: • Systematic desensitization. Focuses on identifying and reducing the physiological/bodily responses to fear. • Cognitive restructuring. Focuses on replacing one’s negative self-talk, with realistic and encouraging self-talk. • Skills training. Practicing and developing the skills associated with effective communication. Michael Motley in his book “Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking: A Proven Approach” argues that it is a performance orientation to public speaking, that accounts for most of the fear people experience. He argues that we should have a communication orientation to public speaking by being as natural and direct as possible. Seek for a conversational approach as opposed to a more polished approach. This is achieved by: • Not memorizing or reading the speech. • Speaking extemporaneously with a key-note outline. • Giving consistent and brief eye contact around the Aggression Theory (Author: Dominick Infantes) Asserts: Aggression is a complex style of communicating which can be constructive when it aims to improve communication, foster learning, enhance relational understanding, or affect important change. Aggression is a destructive style when it only serves to vent hostility and to hurt or control another. Definition of Aggression: The application of pressure on another person. Four traits (or levels) of aggression. (The first two are considered constructive and beneficial, the second two are considered destructive and harmful.) • Assertiveness. Putting your rights forward without hampering others’ rights. • Argumentativeness. ⿞1) The willingness to discuss controversial topics and, ⿞2) The ability to defend one’s point of view even in the face of strong opposition.J (Has a positive correlation with effective leadership) • Hostility. Open display of anger for the purposes of venting and or dominating • • • Verbal insults/ flaming. Rhetorical Sensitivity (Author: Rod Hart) Asserts: Effective communication arises from a style that is sensitive and reflects care in one’s audience by adjusting and adapting messages to personal needs, preferences, and sensitivities of specific audiences There are three general types of communicators: The Noble Self. These communicators stick to their personal ideals and style without variation and without adapting or adjusting to others. The Rhetorical Reflector. These communicators are individuals who, at the opposite extreme, moderate themselves to others’ wishes, without following one’s personal needs or principles. The rhetorically sensitive. Moderate between the two above Conversational Style (Author: Deborah Tannen) Asserts: One’s conversational style influences both senders and receivers. How we choose to frame our messages as senders influences how we interpret other senders’ messages. This can be a problematic practice because everyone has their own unique style. We must try to interpret others’ messages based on their own styles, not on our own. One’s conversational style is made up of: 1) Conversational signals 2) Conversational devices. Conversational signals include: • Vocal tone • Vocal pace • Vocal volume • Vocal intonation Conversational devices include: • Expressive reactions: The degree of reaction we give to our conversational partners. • Asking questions: The degree to which we engage in question-asking or not. • Complaining: The degree to which we openly complain with others or not. • Matching: The degree to which we match others regarding such conversational practices, such as, self-disclosure, jokes, compliments, etc. Immediacy Immediacy is an effective communication style. It is the open expression of liking and acceptance of another person. Verbal immediacy is what people say that causes us to feel closer to one another. This involves giving messages that show: Friendliness, openness, care, and liking. Immediacy (Verbal) • Expressive: Take care. Be careful. How are you feeling? • Self-disclosive: Revealing personal stories, sharing one’s thoughts or worries. • Caring and appreciation: I value your input. • Responsive: I understand how you feel. • Use direct references: I thought of you when... • Praise: You write very clearly. • • inclusive: Do you want to join us? • Future-oriented: I look forward to working with you again. Immediacy (Nonverbal) • Dressing appropriately to the situation • Leaning toward; open body orientation • Nodding • Eye contact • Smiling; pleasant facial expression • Interested voice • Sitting closer • Being sensitive to and honoring time constraints


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