Social Psy. 4/4-4/8
Social Psy. 4/4-4/8 3623 Social Psychology
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3623 Social Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3623 Social Psychology at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Thomas Carskadon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/12/16
Social Psy. Notes 4/4/164/8/16 When do groups give you better decisions? Ex of good: In the hospital, it is better to have a group watching over the patient. It will give you a better result to have more people watching over a patient than only one person. Ex of bad: In the case of an accident or crime. A group of eye witnesses will lead to various accounts of the event, and they will more likely have something inaccurate. Another ex. associated with the first ex. A clinic/hospital has more than one doctor to figure out what’s wrong with a patient, which will gain better care for the patient. Another good ex: Weather forecast you have several people giving you data and info on the weather Minority Opinion someone whose opinion doesn’t match others. People with minority opinions tend to be liked less. Minority Slowness Effect If you know your opinion isn’t what others think, you may censor yourself. You should go ahead and speak though! If you really believe you’re right, you have a chance to be influential by being: 1. Humble 2. Confident 3. Persistent Also, check things out to see if you’re right. If you’re in the minority and you get someone on the majority to agree with you, you will be able to change more peoples’ minds. Traditional Theories about Leadership 1. Task Specialist Focused effectively on what neede to be done. 2. Social Leader Tended to the needs of followers. 3. Great Man Theory of Leadership Some people are born to lead and it’s a man usually. 4. Transformational Leadership These days, leadership is focused on transformational leadership. It’s where the leader motivates people to identify with common good. Tries to make them see why they are doing this is good and that it matters. Truly great leaders can be both a task specialist and social leader. Characteristics of Transformational Leadership 1. Energetic 2. Charismatic 3. Confident 4. Extroverted 5. Articulates high standards 6. Inspires vision 7. Is generous in giving personal attention Ch. 9 Prejudice Preconceived, negative judgment about a group and its members; against race, sex, age; stereotypes ImmigrantsThe U.S. is usually against them. Weight Obesity; especially. Weight prejudice is actually stronger than race or gender prejudice. Stereotypes Giving attributes to all of a certain group. Almost always inaccurate and very resistant to new information. Even if they are partially true they are still stereotypes and not true of all. Explicit prejudice: you know you have prejudices against others Implicit prejudice: you don’t know, but you are unconsciously doing and it is influencing your behaviors. Racial prejudice: All races are a minority. Genetically, skin color is an extremely trivial difference. Most people believe that other people are prejudice. White and prejudice: 44% believe others are, but only 1% think they themselves are. In 1942, less than 1/3 of all white people and less than 2% of southern white people were for integration. More recently, 90% believe in integration. White people compare present situation to how it was in the past. Black people compare present situation to the ideal way it should be. Chicago car buying experiment: Car buyers were sent to different car dealers compare the deals on popular cars that every dealer had in Chicago. These deals were based on race and sex. A white male pays less than anyone else. A white female pays more than the white male. A black male pays two times as much as the white male. A black female pays three and a half as much as the white male. Resumes with African American sounding names were sometimes overlooked, which kept them from getting a job. Traffic Stops Black motorist are four times more likely to be searched. Three times as more likely to be restrained, and two times as more likely to be arrested/ taken to jail. Dick and Jane: Jane’s just a girl. She can’t do the same things. She doesn’t know as much. Etc. Gender Stereotypes are worse than racial stereotypes. Women believe gender stereotypes as much as men do. Men and women actually like women better than men though. Ethnocentrism The belief in the superiority of your own ethnic/ cultural group and disdaining/put down other groups. Adorno came up with the Authoritarian personality. This is where some people had the personality that favored strict obedience to rules. And strong hate towards others who didn’t follow rules, and had prejudice against any other groups. ReligionIn about every country, the leaders invoke religion to uphold status quo. So that they can say they are right and God is on their side. There is more segregation in churches than anywhere else. Among Northern American Christians, church members express more racial prejudice than nonmembers. Any minister/priest will tell you there are two types of people: 1. Show Christians those who show up around holidays. Those type of people are more likely to be prejudice than those who go regularly. 2. Those who go regularly. Historical ministers/priests were at the forefront of civil rights movements. Many times, conformity took force in prejudice. There are many who don’t feel hate/ prejudice but they go along with it anyway. They won’t say anything either. People tend to follow the existing norms. Faceism Take a look at magazines. 2/3 of male photos are devoted to the face. Less than ½ of photos of women will be devoted to the body. CartoonismStudy on who shows up in cartoons. Psychologists looked through cartoons from WWII1987. There were 50,000 cartoons that they looked at. How many depicted an African American? They found one cartoon that showed someone who was African American. Scapegoat Theory of prejudice people may feel personally/economically frustrated, which may lead to blaming minorities and aggression towards them. Ex: When cotton sales were low African Americans were blamed and usually were murdered. When cotton sale were high they were less murders. Realistic Group Conflict Theory prejudice results when groups have to compete for resources. We typically have ingroups and outgroups. When people need to belong, they tend to go with outgroups. When their needs are met, they are less likely to be prejudice. Cognitive Theory of prejudice is a byproduct of cognitive efficiency. They outgroup homogeneity effect (homogeneous) tend to perceive the members of out group as similar to each other. As we see members of our own group different from one another. This leads to stupid thinking and questions. Ex: It’s like asking a white person what kind of car they’d like to buy. They say corvette, so then the thought is that all white people like to buy corvettes. Ownrace Bias We tend to think that people of other races look alike even though we don’t see our own race as looking the same. We tend to be able to tell characteristics and differences better of our own race than just their physical characteristics. People are more accurate at recognizing people of the same age, and able to tell the differences between them better, too. Whoever is the most distinctive in a group will be attributed with certain qualities/characteristics. People tend to define us by our most distinctive character and by whatever is the most unusual thing about us. Distinction does tend to fee selfconsciousness. Stigma Conscious Where a person expects to be picked out for discrimination. Stigma stereotype us in a negative way. Power of vivid cases makes us overestimate the frequency of certain things or people. Ex: How many muslims are in the U.S.? 0.6%; 1 out of every 200 people Group serving bias a bias that helps our group against another. If another group screws up, they think that’s how it is with that group. But with ourselves, it was because of something else. Us=situational Them=dispositional Just World Phenomenon Tend to operate on the assumption that the world is fair. If you’re good, good things will happen to you. And vice versa.
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