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Week 2 notes

by: Diana Blanco

Week 2 notes Psych 345

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These notes cover week 2 information.
Jonathon Brown
Class Notes
Psychology, social psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Blanco on Tuesday April 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 345 at a university taught by Jonathon Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 04/12/16
University name: University of Washington  Course name: Psychology 345  Lecture: 3 Date: 04/04/2016 Week: 2 Theory 2 1. Review Locke 2. Behaviorism  3. Hull’s behaviorism  4. Gestalt Psychology  I. Review John Locke’s Philosophy  a. There is nothing in the intellect that is not first in the senses  b. Complex ideas represent associated elements i. The whole is = to the sum of all parts  c. The mind is a mirror that passively reflects the external world  II. Behaviorism a. A way of thinking about a psychological phenomenon  b. Main assumptions: i. Positivism: Something is true if it is agreed upon multiple neutral  observers  ii. Mechanism: Thoughts play no role in directing behavior.  c. Three sources of behavior:  i. Instinct ii. Flailing: (i.e. Trial and error) iii. Acquired habits: Conditioned/habitual  d. Mechanism illustrated:  Animal is Animal stops punished for stealing stealing Child learns that stealing is immoral Child is punished for Child stops stealing stealing A. Thorndike o Put animals in a puzzle box  o Researcher arbitrarily picks a “correct” response o Reinforces animal whenever it picks the “correct” response”  o Overtime, the animal comes to emit the correct response soon after it is placed in the puzzle box   Explanation:  o Animal does the behavior that has been reinforced   No thinking of any kind B. Thorndike’s laws a. Law of effect  i. Behavior is a function of its prior consequences  b. Law of exercise  i. Habitual behaviors are acquired in a slow, gradual fashion  without swift changes  C. Natural Selection and Instrumental Learning i. Natural Selection:  1.  Variation exist among members of a species  2. Some of these variations prove to be adaptive variations endure,  maladaptive ones perish  ii. Instrumental Learning  1. Animals frail (i.e. Their movements are random)  2. Some of these movements prove to be adaptive 3. Adaptive movements (behaviors) persist, maladaptive ones perish  III. Hull’s Drive Reduction Model  a. Nature of reinforcement  i. Learning occurs only if a stimulus reduces a primary biological drive (e.g.  hunger, thirst) 1. B = D x H   Behavior = Drive x Habit  Multiplication Model: both must be present  b. Tolman’s Latent Learning (tested Hull’s Idea) i.  Rats run through a maze to reach a goal box  1. Group 1 received reinforcement (food) whenever it reached the  goal box  2. Group 2 never received food when it reached the goal box  3. Group 3 did not receive food when it reached the goal box during  the first 10 days, but did on and after the 11  day  ii. Explanation:  1. Once rats in group 3 were given an incentive (food) on the 11  th day, they were just as good as the rats in group 1   c. Social “Learning”  i. Behaviorism: All behavior originates through trial and error  ii. Yet many animals learn by observing and imitating others  IV. Gestalt Psychology a. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts  b. Bottom­up perception i. Physical stimuli determine perception  ii. Perception is a passive, data driven process iii. The whole is = to the sum of the parts  c. Top­ down perception i. Physical stimuli influence perception, but perception is affected by other  factors  ii. Perception is an active, theory­driven process iii. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts  d. Context:  i. Perception doesn’t depend only on stimulus features, it also depends on  context ii. Meaning is variable  Context determines  Meaning  Guides behavior e. First assumption: Interdependence  i. Perception occurs in an interdependent field of forces  1. Perception depends on the whole (not the parts in isolation)  2. Perception of something depends on surrounding context  ii. Muller­Lyer illusion  1. Shows importance of context  f. Second assumption: Pagnanz  i. Perception is guided toward achieving a perfect estate g. Third assumption: no motives  i. Perception is hard­wired and cannot be overridden by psychological  needs, motives, wishes and desires  Social Perception: Chapter 3  The study of how we form impressions of others and how they influence our behavior I. Social Perception Model: Physical features Nonverbal Impression Behavi Behavior s or Cognitive II. Behavioral Confirmation Effects 2. Jamie acts guarded when talking to Chris 1. Jamie has 3. Chris heard Chris is responds by arrogant and being cold to aloof Jamie 4. Jamie concludes Chris is arrogant and A. First Impressions – we form impressions of others rapidly  a. Innate preferences for faces i. First 9 minutes of birth, babies prefer to look at face­like image  b. Fusiform face area  c. “What is beautiful is good”  i. Belief that pretty people have pleasing personalities  ii. Evidence for innate mechanism   1. Infants prefer attractive faces to unattractive faces  2. Cross­cultural evidence – judgements of facial attractiveness  are highly similar across cultures  d. What makes an attractive face? i. Large, widely­spaced eyes, small nose, round circular features, large  smile, full lips, small chin ii. Innately we like roundness, not jagged  iii. Facial Symmetry 1. More attractive  iv. Average faces 1. The more average they are, the more attractive they are  B. Facial expression of emotions a. Universal recognition of facial expressions of emotions i. Belief that attractive people have pleasant personalities b. Evolutionary explanation: i. We communicate though our facial expressions  C. Ekman’s sex universal emotions a. Anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise i. Not learned, born knowing  Lecture: 4 Date: 04/06/2016 Social Perception 2 1. Detecting Deception 2. Review Bottom­up vs Top­Down  3. Schemas I. Detecting Deception a. Accuracy is low  i. People are too trusting  b. Ekman’s Research  c. What reveals deception i. Adapters: scratching face, forgetting words, trouble speaking, high pitch  d. Zuckerman et al (1981)  i. Accuracy at detecting lies is low when looking at face ONLY. ii. Accuracy at detecting lies is high when looking at face AND body. iii. Accuracy at detecting lies is the highest when looking at body ONLY.  II. Reviewing Bottom­up vs. Top­down a. Bottom­up i. From the specific to the general ii. Data driven  iii. Objective, not interpretive b. Top­down i. From the general to the specific  ii. Theory driven (aka schema driven) iii. Subjective, interpretive  c. Illustrate Bottom­up vs. Top­down  i. Bottom­up example: first impressions about someone, very objective ii. Top­down example: after knowing more information about someone, you  see who they really are  III. Schemas  a. Organized, pre­existing knowledge  b. People have schemas about: people, objects, events, etc. A. Cognitive consequences  a. Attention i. More likely to notice something if you have pre­existing  experience/knowledge about it, if it violates or have no schema for it at all. b. Interpretation of events c. Memory B. Schemas and memory a. Hamilton, Driscoll and Worth (1989) i. All subjects are told Bob is friendly and then read them things he did that  day  1. Schema­consistent: Bob said hello to sue 2. Schema­inconsistent: Bob snubbed Bill 3. Schema­irrelevant: Bob tied his shoes  b. Hamilton et al (1989) i. Memory:  1. Schema relevant information is better recalled than schema  irrelevant information 2. Schema­inconsistent information is better remembered than  schema relevant information  c. Schema Activation i. Priming Effects 1. Srull and Wyer (1979) a. Subjects make sentences out of various words, some of  them are relevant to hostility  b. All subjects then read stories about “Donald” (ex: Donald  refused to pay his rent) 2. Srull and Wyer (1979) a. Negative impressions increased with hostility related words b. Negative impressions weren’t as bad with non­hostility  related words Social inference: Chapter 4  1. Overview 2. Elemental Models 3. Perceptual/cognitive Model   I. Social Inference a. Three metaphors  i. Consistency seeker (1950 – 1965) ii. Naïve Scientist (1965 – 1980) iii. Cognitive Miser (1980 – 1995) b. Information Integration  i. Whole is = to the sum of the parts  ii. Whole is > than the sum of the parts  II. Elemental Model  a. Independence  i. Whatever you know about something is isolated/independent of other  things you know  ii. Whole is = to the sum of the parts A. Additive Model  a. Overall impressions of a person can be predicted by summing the evaluative  ratings given to each trait  b. Model can predict who you will like best if the sum of “Pat’s” qualities exceeds  the sum of “Kim’s” qualities i. Example: Read chapter 4, page 104 B. Averaging Model a. Average, rather than add, all the information about a person in order to form an  overall judgement of liking i. Example: Read chapter 4, page 104 C. Weighted Averaging Model a. “(1) assign an important weight to each trait, (2) multiply each trait by its  importance weight, (3) sum these products, and (4) divide this sum by the sum of  the importance weights” (see chapter 4, page 105) D. Summary a. Each trait is considered in isolation from the others  b. Whole is = to the sum of the parts  c. Of the three, the weighted averaging model is best  III. Perception/cognitive Model  a. Pragnanz b. The whole is > the sum of the parts  A. Asch’s change of meaning hypothesis  a. Traits don’t have a fixed meaning  b. The meaning of any trait depends on the context in which it is found  c. Meaning is variable, context determines meaning, meaning guides behavior  B. Warm­Cold Effect a. Traits change meaning depending if trait is paired with a “warm” meaning or  “cold” meaning  i. Example:  1. Trait: Intelligent  a. Meaning when paired with warm: Smart  b. Meaning with pared with cold: Devious  C. Summary a. Traits do not have a fixed meaning (they are variable)  b. Context determines meaning   


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