Ch. 18 notes_MKT 423
Ch. 18 notes_MKT 423 MKT 4230
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 4230 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Knowles in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Promotional Strategy in Marketing at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
▯ Eyes ▯ ▯ We are visual creatures ▯ ▯ E.H. Hess – Physiologist – gathered info about HOW to test good/bad advertisements First to research eye tracking o Because he was the first to make a connection between stimulation and visceral response ▯ Pupils dilated when looking at a book of beautiful animal pictures o Visceral response to a visual stimulation o When we look at something that sparks our interest, our eyes dilate In a study, it was found that men were attracted to large pupils o Women respond more to children, handsome men o Men respond to women, landscapes o Given 2 of the same pictures of a woman, but one had dilated pupils Men liked big pupils Women did not respond as well Liked medium, also blue eyes – see pupils in a blue eye better Encyclopedia Study o Two images on the cover of the same encyclopedia: Boys in a pool People’s pupils dilated more Cooler picture Family around a telescope But preferred this ▯ There is software to track eye movement o Tobii o Movement maps o Heat maps ▯ Ch. 18 Measuring efectiveness Reasons to measure efectiveR neassons to not measure Lack of time Determine if objectives are achieved Objections of creative department Increased advertising efciency Disagreement on what to test Evaluate alternative strategies Research problems Avoid costly mistakes Costs involved What to Test: Source factors Message variables Media strategies Vehicle option source effect: Diferential impact of an advertising exposure on the same audience depending on the media option used Budgeting decisions ▯ ▯ Where to Test: Laboratory tests: People are brought to a particular location where they are shown ads and/or commercials o Location Testing bias: People may scrutinize the ads much more closely than they would at home o Know that is their objective – try harder to pay attention because the location/pressure Field tests: Tests under natural viewing situations o Carried out with the realism of noise, distractions, and the comforts of home o More indicative of natural habits How to Test: • Positioning Advertising Copy Testing (PACT): Improves the research used in preparing and testing ads by: • Providing a better creative product for clients • Controlling the cost of TV commercial Testing Process Concept generation and testing Rough art, copy, and commercial testing o Types: Comprehension and reaction tests: Assess the reaction an ad generates to ensure that it is not ofensive Test on a group Consumer juries: Use consumers representative of the target market to evaluate the probable success of an ad Pretesting of finished ads Market testing of ads ▯ ▯ Weaknesses/Limitations of Focus Group Research Consumer may become a self-appointed expert Number of ads that can be evaluated is limited Halo effect: Overall rating is influenced by the judgment on one or few characteristics of the ad Preferences for types of advertising may overshadow objectivity ▯ ▯ Gallup & Robinson Impact System ▯ ▯ ▯ Portfolio Test Expose a group of respondents to a portfolio consisting of control and test ads Limitations Factors other than advertising creativity and/or presentation may afect recall Ability to recognize the ad when shown may be a better measure than recall ▯ Readability Tests Communications efciency of the copy in a print ad is tested without reader interviews Flesch formula: Assesses readability of a copy by determining the average number of syllables per 100 words Limitations Copy may become too mechanical Direct input from receiver is not available ▯ ▯ New Print Pretesting Measures PreTesting Groups’ People Reader methodology o Provides mocked-up magazines to consumers and measures their responsiveness to each ad o Uses hidden cameras to record behavior Link o Uses a comprehensive set of diagnostic questions to evoke viewer reactions to the ads Pretesting Finished Broadcast Ads Theatre testing-Participants On-air test-Commercials are are invited to view pilots of inserted into actual TV proposed TV programs programs in certain markets. • Advantages • Recall: Number of persons • Establish norms indicate able to recall the ad and/or how an add will fare its message against competition • Brand preference measure is supported by actual sales results • Disadvantages • Artificial environment • Contrived measure of brand preference, change is recognizable • Group efect may influence a viewer’s reaction Physiological Measures • Indicate receiver’s involuntary response to the ad • Pupil dilation • Pupillometrics: Measures dilation and constriction of the pupils in response to stimuli • Galvanic skin response (GSR) • Electrodermal response (EDR): Measures the skin’s resistance or conductance to a small amount of current • Brain Waves • Electroencephalographic (EEG): Determine electrical frequencies in brain • Alpha activity: Degree of brain activation • Hemispheric lateralization: Distinguishes between alpha activity in the left and right sides of the brain • Brain scan imaging - Examine physiological reactions to ads and brands Posttests of Print Ads Posttests of Broadcast Commercials Issues with Current Research methods • Accomplishing some factors important to good copy testing require more efort • Most current methods do little more than provide recall scores • Lab measures - Artificial and vulnerable to testing efects • Field measures - Result in a loss of control Essentials of efective Testing • Establish communications objectives • Use a consumer response model • Use both pretests and posttests • Use multiple measures • Understand and implement proper research • Solid research should meet these criteria. Research methodologies that meet these criteria will be the most efective for providing insight into the performance of advertising.
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