Zoology 106 Lab Amphibians and Bony Fish
Zoology 106 Lab Amphibians and Bony Fish Bio 106-016
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 16: Bony Fishes Kingdom: Animalia Clade: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Clade: Craniata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Actinopterygii ~ 27, 000 living species Habitat: Marine and freshwater Respiratory: Gills that have an increased efficiency due to the operculum Operculum a moveable flap covering each gill that can pump water over the gills, allowing a fish to breathe even while stationary Swim bladder allows fish to achieve neutral buoyancy in the water column and allows gas exchange to occur Locomotion: Bone rays supports and stiffens paired fins and aid in maneuvering by folding against the body Ray-finned Fish Kingdom: Animalia Clade: Deuterostomia Phylum:Chordata Subphylum:Vertebrata Class: Actinopterygii Genus: Morone americana Deuterostomes Gnathostomes Body: Fusiform body shape minimizes drag during swimming Head o 2 nostrils o 2 large imageforming eyes w/ no eyelids o Terminal mouth w/ small teeth o Bony operculum covering gills on each side of the head Ventral anus o Females possess urogenital opening to release eggs and metabolic waste o Males possess separate genital pore and urinary opening Ossified cranium protects highly developed brain Dermal exoskeleton and bony endoskeleton o Provides rigid, protective encasement for the brain and sensory organs Fish scales represent growth rings Feeding: Carnivorous Jaws unhinge to accommodate large prey; swallow most prey whole Teeth small, numerous, sharp and function in preventing prey from escaping as they are swallowed External Anatomy of Bony Fish Structure Function Eyes Largeimage forming sight organs, lacking eyelids Nostrils Paired openings in dorsum of head leading to olfactory receptors Mandible Lower jawbone bearing teeth for prey capture Maxilla Upper jawbone, fused with skull, bearing teeth for prey capture Opercula Paired bony flaps that cover the gills on either side of the head, attached anteriorly and dorsally but open posteriorly and ventrally for the release of water Pectoral Steering and braking while swimming and maintenance of dorsalventral fins orientation while suspended Pelvic fins Steering while swimming Anal fin Steering while swimming Caudal fin Provides thrust and acts as a rudder while swimming Dorsal fin Steering and maintenance of dorsalventral orientation while swimming Lateral Specialized sensory organ that detect vibrations and current directions in the lines water Internal Anatomy of the Bony Fish Structure Function Tongue Manipulation of food as well as chemosensory reception Gills Contain capillary beds for gas exchange for respiration Heart 2 chambered organ (1 atrium, 1 ventricle) that pumps deoxygenated blood to the gills for oxygenation and from there throughout the various organs systems of the body Liver Largewhitish organ that detoxifies many constituents of the absorbed digestive compounds and functions in lipid and glycogen storage Gallbladder Stores bile produced by the liver Spleen Elongate organ that stores blood and recycles wornout red blood cells (produces white blood cells) Pyloric ceca 3 short pouches extending laterally from the small intestine near its juncture with the stomach that increases digestive surface area of the intestine Stomach Site of food storage and initiation of digestion Small Digestion of food received from the stomach and nutrient absorption into the intestine bloodstream Rectum Terminal portion of intestinal tract that leads to anus Testes Paired organs that produce sperm for transport through the sperm ducts and (male) release through the genital pore for external fertilization Ovaries Single (fused) organ that produces eggs for transport through the short (female) oviduct and release through the urogenital pore for external fertilization Anus Regulated egestion of undigested food (feces) from the body Urinary Storage organ for ammonia prior to elimination through urogenital opening bladder Vertebrae Columnar units of the vertebral column which provide support, house the dorsal nerve cord, and articulate with the ribs Swim Hollow, gasfilled sac that serves as a buoyancy organ; regulates volume of bladder gas Ureters Paired tubes that transport kidney filtrate (ammonia) to the urinary bladder Kidneys Filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood Digestive: Pancreas, gallbladder and liver secrete digestive compounds to help breakdown food Mouth → esophagus → stomach → pyloric ceca → small intestine → rectum → anus Excretory: Metabolic wastes filtered from blood by kidneys and concentrated into ammonia Ammonia stored in urinary bladder Released through o Urinary pore in males o Urogenital pore in females Reproductive: Dioecious o Males paired testes produce sperm and release it through separate genital pore o Females single ovary produce eggs, travel along oviduct and release through urogenital pore External fertilization Circulatory: Singlecircuit circulatory system o Blood leaves heart and makes a single path through gills/ body organs before returning 2 chambered heart (1 atrium, 1 ventricle) enclosed pericardial membrane Hemoglobin respiratory pigment increases oxygencarrying capacity of blood o Oxygenation of blood occurs in gills Deoxygenated blood from body tissues collects in sinus venosus → atrium → ventricle → bulbus arteriosus → ventral aorta → gills Sinus venosus & bulbus arteriosus maintain an even blood flow into the heart and gills Respiratory: 4 gills w/ 1 operculum each and numerous gill filaments that extend posteriorly from the fill arch Gill raker protect the gill apparatus and prevent the passage of coarse material across the gill filaments Chapter 17: Amphibians Kingdom: Animalia Clade: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Amphibia Order: Anura ~3,500 species ~frogs and toads Distinguishing features Compact bodies Powerful hindlimbs Absence of tail in adult stage Body: Head: o Eyes and nose at top of head to allow frogs to breathe while in water o Have a blind spot directly in front of snout o Eyes inclined forward to increase depth perception o Moveable eyelids to protect the eyes from dust and soil and to keep the moist o Tympanic membrane prominent eardrums next to each eye Small movements of the tympanic membrane amplified/transferred by the middle ear bones to fluidfilled capsules in the inner ear, containing hair cells that bend from the pressure of the soundwaves and generate nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Compressed vertebrae column o 10 vertebrae o Last vertebrae = urostyle Develops from the fusion of the last several vertebrae to form a base that allows the frog to bear forces necessary to propel into a jump and support its landing o Forelimbs and hindlimbs fuse to increase strength o Radius and ulna fuse to form radioulna o Tibia and fibula fuse to form tibiofibula w/ tarsals and metatarsals to increase flexibility, enhance swimming and jumping Muscles: o Arranged in antagonistic pairs o Adducts move limb toward from body midline o Abducts move limb away from body midline o Flexors bend one part of body towards another part o Extensors straighten/extend a body part away Ventral Musculature of the Frog Body Region Muscle Name Action Neck,shoulders and Mylohyoid Assists in swallowing and abdomen breathing Coracoradialis Flexes forearm Pectoralis major Adducts forelimb Deltoid Flexes shoulder and adducts forelimb Cutaneous pectoris Compresses subcutaneous lymph sacs Rectus abdominus Compresses abdomen and flexes trunk External oblique Compresses abdomen and flexes trunk Forelimb Anconeus Extends forearm Extensor carpi radialis Extends wrist and digits Extensor digitorum communis Extends hand and digits longus Flexor carpi radialis Flexes hand and digits Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexes hand and digits Palmaris longus Flexes digits Pelvis, thigh, and hindlimb Adductor magnus Adducts thigh Pectineus Adducts thigh Adductor longus Adducts thigh Sartorius Flexes hindlimb and adducts thigh Gracilis major and minor Flexes hindlimb and adducts thigh Semitendinosus Flexes hindlimbs and retracts thigh Semimembranosus Flexes hindlimb Triceps femoris Extends hindlimbs Tibialis posterior Extends hindlimbs Gastrocnemius Extends hindfoot Tibialis anterior longus Flexes hindfoot Dorsal Musculature of the Frog Body Region Muscle Name Action Neck,shoulders and back Temporalis Flexes head and lifts mandible Dorsalis scapulae Abducts humerus Latissimus dorsi Abducts humerus Anconeus Extends forearm Iliolumbar Braces the back and extends pelvic girdle Longissimus dorsi Braces the back and extends pelvic girdle Coccygeoiliacus Braces the back and extends pelvic girdle Pelvis and thigh Gluteus Rotates thigh forward Iliacus internus Moves thigh forward Adductor longus Adducts thigh Adductor magnus Adducts thigh Piriformis Retracts thigh Iliofibularis Flexes hindlimb Gracilis minor Flexes hindlimb Semimembranosus Flexes hindlimb Triceps femoris Extends the lower hindlimb Semitendinosus Flexes lower hindlimb and retracts thigh Shank and hindfoot Peroneus Flexes hindfoot Abductor brevis dorsalis Abducts digits of hindfoot Flexor digitorum brevis Flexes digits of hindfoot Gastrocnemius Extends hindfoot Digestive: Fat bodies store lipids that the body draws upon when food is scarce or during breeding season Captures prey w/ mouth w/ tongue (swallow prey whole) Digestive Anatomy of the Frog Structure Function Fat bodies Repositories for lipid reserves attached to kidney Esophagus Transports food to the stomach Stomach Site of food storage and initiation of digestion Liver Produces bile and detoxifies many constituents of the absorbed digestive compounds Gallbladder Store bile produced by liver Bile duct Transports secretions from the liver and the pancreas to the duodenum Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and delivers and delivers them through the common bile duct to the duoderm Duodenum Receives secretions from the liver and the pancreas through the common bile duct for further breakdown of food from the stomach Jejunoileum Site of completion of digestion, where most of the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream occurs Large Site of absorption of water as well as certain vitamins and ions intestine Cloaca Common chamber for the release of urine, feces, and gametes Circulatory: Closed circulatory system Doublecircuit system o Separate pulmonary and systemic branches that route blood to the lungs and the rest of the body, allowing each circuit to operate at different pressures. 3 chambered heart encased in pericardial membrane o Heart divided into 2 circuits w/ left and right atria Collects blood from pulmonary and systemic circuits; deoxygenated and oxygenated blood kept in ventricle 2 portal systems o Blood flows from capillary beds in the tissues through portal veins to a 2nd set of capillary beds before returning to the heart o Hepatic portal system and renal portal system Spleen o Recycles wornout blood cells and produces lymphocytes Respiratory: Paired lungs and liver Lack a diaphragm “swallow” and force into lungs to breathe Gas exchange occurs through vascular pouches of skin (must maintain moisture) Reproduction/Urogenital: Dioecious External fertilization o Larval form = freshwater w/ tail Males have a pair of testes attached to either vasa efferentia or fat bodies Urogenital Anatomy of the Frog Structure Function Adrenal glands Produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and metabolism Kidneys Paired organs that filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood Ureters Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Ureter apertures Paired orifices through which urine from the ureters enters the cloaca before passing into the bladder for storage Cloaca Common chamber for collecting materials from the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems prior to their discharge from the body Bladder Site of storage for urine prior to discharge from the cloaca Vasa efferentia Small ducts that transport sperm from the testes to the kidneys (male) Seminal Contribute seminal fluid for sperm entering cloaca to assist on dispersion vesicles (male) and insemination Testes (male) Paired organs that produce sperm for transport via the vasa efferentia through the kidneys to the ureters and discharge through the cloaca Uteri (female) Site of storage of unfertilized eggs prior to discharge through the cloaca Ovaries Organs that produce eggs for transport through the oviducts to the uteri (female) and discharge through cloaca Oviducts Paired tubes that transport eggs from the ovaries to the uteri and secrete (female) jellylike coating for protection of the eggs Ostia (female) Openings in the anterior ends of the oviducts through which eggs released from the ovaries into the coelomic cavity enter the oviduct
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