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Zoology 106 Lab Amphibians and Bony Fish

by: Dallas Bowe

Zoology 106 Lab Amphibians and Bony Fish Bio 106-016

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Biology > Bio 106-016 > Zoology 106 Lab Amphibians and Bony Fish
Dallas Bowe
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.76

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The taxonomy, anatomy with functions and system functions of bony fish and amphibians.
Zoology Lab
Dr. Nancy Butler
Class Notes
Zoology, lab, Biology
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 16: Bony Fishes Kingdom: Animalia  Clade: Deuterostomia  Phylum: Chordata  Clade: Craniata  Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Actinopterygii ~ 27, 000 living species  Habitat: Marine and freshwater  Respiratory: Gills that have an increased efficiency due to the operculum Operculum­ a moveable flap covering each gill that can pump water over the gills,  allowing a fish to breathe even while stationary   Swim bladder­ allows fish to achieve neutral buoyancy in the water column and allows  gas exchange to occur  Locomotion: Bone rays­ supports and stiffens paired fins and aid in maneuvering by folding against  the body  Ray-finned Fish Kingdom: Animalia  Clade: Deuterostomia  Phylum:Chordata Subphylum:Vertebrata Class: Actinopterygii  Genus: Morone americana  ­Deuterostomes  ­Gnathostomes  Body:   Fusiform body shape ­­ minimizes drag during swimming   Head  o 2 nostrils  o 2 large image­forming eyes w/ no eyelids  o Terminal mouth w/ small teeth o Bony operculum covering gills on each side of the head   Ventral anus  o Females possess urogenital opening to release eggs and metabolic waste  o Males possess separate genital pore and urinary opening    Ossified cranium ­­ protects highly developed brain   Dermal exoskeleton and bony endoskeleton  o Provides rigid, protective encasement for the brain and sensory organs  Fish scales ­­ represent growth rings  Feeding:   Carnivorous   Jaws unhinge to accommodate large prey; swallow most prey whole  Teeth ­ small, numerous, sharp and function in preventing prey from escaping as they  are swallowed  External Anatomy of Bony Fish  Structure  Function Eyes  Large­image forming sight organs, lacking eyelids  Nostrils  Paired openings in dorsum of head leading to olfactory receptors Mandible  Lower jawbone bearing teeth for prey capture  Maxilla Upper jawbone, fused with skull, bearing teeth for prey capture Opercula Paired bony flaps that cover the gills on either side of the head, attached  anteriorly and dorsally but open posteriorly and ventrally for the release of water Pectoral  Steering and braking while swimming and maintenance of dorsal­ventral  fins orientation while suspended  Pelvic fins Steering while swimming Anal fin Steering while swimming Caudal fin Provides thrust and acts as a rudder while swimming  Dorsal fin Steering and maintenance of dorsal­ventral orientation while swimming Lateral  Specialized sensory organ that detect vibrations and current directions in the  lines water  Internal Anatomy of the Bony Fish  Structure Function Tongue  Manipulation of food as well as chemosensory reception Gills  Contain capillary beds for gas exchange for respiration Heart 2 chambered organ (1 atrium, 1 ventricle) that pumps deoxygenated blood to  the gills for oxygenation and from there throughout the various organs  systems of the body  Liver Large­whitish organ that detoxifies many constituents of the absorbed  digestive compounds and functions in lipid and glycogen storage  Gallbladder  Stores bile produced by the liver  Spleen  Elongate organ that stores blood and recycles worn­out red blood cells  (produces white blood cells)  Pyloric ceca 3 short pouches extending laterally from the small intestine near its juncture  with the stomach that increases digestive surface area of the intestine Stomach Site of food storage and initiation of digestion Small  Digestion of food received from the stomach and nutrient absorption into the  intestine  bloodstream  Rectum Terminal portion of intestinal tract that leads to anus Testes  Paired organs that produce sperm for transport through the sperm ducts and  (male)  release through the genital pore for external fertilization Ovaries  Single (fused) organ that produces eggs for transport through the short  (female)  oviduct and release through the urogenital pore for external fertilization  Anus Regulated egestion of undigested food (feces) from the body  Urinary  Storage organ for ammonia prior to elimination through urogenital opening bladder Vertebrae Columnar units of the vertebral column which provide support, house the  dorsal nerve cord, and articulate with the ribs  Swim  Hollow, gas­filled sac that serves as a buoyancy organ; regulates volume of  bladder gas Ureters  Paired tubes that transport kidney filtrate (ammonia) to the urinary bladder Kidneys Filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood  Digestive:   Pancreas, gallbladder and liver ­­ secrete digestive compounds to help breakdown food  Mouth → esophagus → stomach → pyloric ceca → small intestine → rectum → anus  Excretory:  Metabolic wastes filtered from blood by kidneys and concentrated into ammonia   Ammonia stored in urinary bladder  Released through  o Urinary pore in males o Urogenital pore in females Reproductive:   Dioecious  o Males ­ paired testes produce sperm and release it through separate genital pore o Females ­ single ovary produce eggs, travel along oviduct and release through  urogenital pore   External fertilization Circulatory:  Single­circuit circulatory system  o Blood leaves heart and makes a single path through gills/ body organs before  returning   2 chambered heart (1 atrium, 1 ventricle) enclosed pericardial membrane   Hemoglobin ­­ respiratory pigment ­­ increases oxygen­carrying capacity of blood o Oxygenation of blood occurs in gills  Deoxygenated blood from body tissues collects in sinus venosus → atrium → ventricle → bulbus  arteriosus → ventral aorta → gills  Sinus venosus & bulbus arteriosus ­­ maintain an even blood flow into the heart and gills Respiratory:   4 gills w/ 1 operculum each and numerous gill filaments that extend posteriorly from the  fill arch  Gill raker ­­ protect the gill apparatus and prevent the passage of coarse material across  the gill filaments   Chapter 17: Amphibians Kingdom: Animalia  Clade: Deuterostomia  Phylum: Chordata  Subphylum: Vertebrata  Class: Amphibia  Order: Anura  ~3,500 species  ~frogs and toads  Distinguishing features   Compact bodies   Powerful hindlimbs   Absence of tail in adult stage Body:  Head: o Eyes and nose at top of head to allow frogs to breathe while in water  o Have a blind spot directly in front of snout  o Eyes inclined forward to increase depth perception o Moveable eyelids to protect the eyes from dust and soil and to keep the moist  o Tympanic membrane ­­­ prominent eardrums next to each eye  Small movements of the tympanic membrane amplified/transferred by the middle ear bones to fluid­filled capsules in the inner ear, containing hair  cells that bend from the pressure of the soundwaves and generate nerve  impulses that are sent to the brain   Compressed vertebrae column  o 10 vertebrae o Last vertebrae = urostyle   Develops from the fusion of the last several vertebrae to form a base that  allows the frog to bear forces necessary to propel into a jump and support its landing  o Forelimbs and hindlimbs fuse to increase strength  o Radius and ulna fuse to form radioulna  o Tibia and fibula fuse to form tibiofibula w/ tarsals and metatarsals to increase  flexibility, enhance swimming and jumping   Muscles: o Arranged in antagonistic pairs  o Adducts­ move limb toward from body midline o Abducts­ move limb away from body midline o Flexors­ bend one part of body towards another part o Extensors ­ straighten/extend a body part away Ventral Musculature of the Frog Body Region Muscle Name Action Neck,shoulders and  Mylohyoid  Assists in swallowing and  abdomen breathing Coracoradialis Flexes forearm Pectoralis major Adducts forelimb Deltoid Flexes shoulder and adducts  forelimb Cutaneous pectoris Compresses subcutaneous  lymph sacs Rectus abdominus  Compresses abdomen and  flexes trunk External oblique  Compresses abdomen and  flexes trunk Forelimb Anconeus Extends forearm Extensor carpi radialis  Extends wrist and digits Extensor digitorum communis  Extends hand and digits longus Flexor carpi radialis Flexes hand and digits Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexes hand and digits  Palmaris longus Flexes digits  Pelvis, thigh, and hindlimb Adductor magnus Adducts thigh Pectineus Adducts thigh Adductor longus Adducts thigh Sartorius  Flexes hindlimb and adducts thigh Gracilis major and minor  Flexes hindlimb and adducts thigh  Semitendinosus Flexes hindlimbs and retracts thigh Semimembranosus Flexes hindlimb Triceps femoris  Extends hindlimbs Tibialis posterior  Extends hindlimbs Gastrocnemius  Extends hindfoot Tibialis anterior longus Flexes hindfoot  Dorsal Musculature of the Frog  Body Region  Muscle Name  Action Neck,shoulders and back Temporalis Flexes head and lifts mandible Dorsalis scapulae Abducts humerus  Latissimus dorsi Abducts humerus  Anconeus Extends forearm Iliolumbar Braces the back and extends pelvic girdle  Longissimus dorsi  Braces the back and extends pelvic girdle Coccygeoiliacus Braces the back and extends pelvic girdle  Pelvis and thigh  Gluteus  Rotates thigh forward Iliacus internus Moves thigh forward Adductor longus Adducts thigh Adductor magnus Adducts thigh Piriformis Retracts thigh  Iliofibularis Flexes hindlimb Gracilis minor Flexes hindlimb Semimembranosus  Flexes hindlimb Triceps femoris  Extends the lower hindlimb Semitendinosus Flexes lower hindlimb and retracts thigh  Shank and hindfoot  Peroneus  Flexes hindfoot Abductor brevis dorsalis  Abducts digits of hindfoot  Flexor digitorum brevis Flexes digits of hindfoot Gastrocnemius  Extends hindfoot  Digestive:   Fat bodies ­­ store lipids that the body draws upon when food is scarce or during  breeding season  Captures prey w/ mouth w/ tongue (swallow prey whole)  Digestive Anatomy of the Frog Structure  Function Fat bodies Repositories for lipid reserves attached to kidney Esophagus Transports food to the stomach Stomach Site of food storage and initiation of digestion Liver  Produces bile and detoxifies many constituents of the absorbed digestive  compounds Gallbladder Store bile produced by liver Bile duct Transports secretions from the liver and the pancreas to the duodenum Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and delivers and delivers them through the  common bile duct to the duoderm Duodenum Receives secretions from the liver and the pancreas through the common bile  duct for further breakdown of food from the stomach  Jejunoileum  Site of completion of digestion, where most of the absorption of nutrients into  the bloodstream occurs Large  Site of absorption of water as well as certain vitamins and ions intestine  Cloaca Common chamber for the release of urine, feces, and gametes  Circulatory:  Closed circulatory system   Double­circuit system  o Separate pulmonary and systemic branches that route blood to the lungs and the rest of the body, allowing each circuit to operate at different pressures.  3 chambered heart encased in pericardial membrane  o Heart divided into 2 circuits w/ left and right atria   Collects blood from pulmonary and systemic circuits; deoxygenated and  oxygenated blood kept in ventricle  2 portal systems o Blood flows from capillary beds in the tissues through portal veins to a 2nd set of  capillary beds before returning to the heart  o Hepatic portal system and renal portal system   Spleen  o Recycles worn­out blood cells and produces lymphocytes  Respiratory:  Paired lungs and liver   Lack a diaphragm ­­ “swallow” and force into lungs to breathe   Gas exchange occurs through vascular pouches of skin (must maintain moisture)  Reproduction/Urogenital:  Dioecious   External fertilization o Larval form = freshwater w/ tail   Males have a pair of testes attached to either vasa efferentia or fat bodies  Urogenital Anatomy of the Frog  Structure Function  Adrenal glands Produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and metabolism Kidneys  Paired organs that filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood Ureters Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Ureter apertures Paired orifices through which urine from the ureters enters the cloaca  before passing into the bladder for storage  Cloaca Common chamber for collecting materials from the digestive, excretory,  and reproductive systems prior to their discharge from the body Bladder Site of storage for urine prior to discharge from the cloaca Vasa efferentia  Small ducts that transport sperm from the testes to the kidneys  (male) Seminal  Contribute seminal fluid for sperm entering cloaca to assist on dispersion  vesicles (male)  and insemination Testes (male) Paired organs that produce sperm for transport via the vasa efferentia  through the kidneys to the ureters and discharge through the cloaca Uteri (female) Site of storage of unfertilized eggs prior to discharge through the cloaca  Ovaries  Organs that produce eggs for transport through the oviducts to the uteri  (female) and discharge through cloaca Oviducts  Paired tubes that transport eggs from the ovaries to the uteri and secrete  (female)  jelly­like coating for protection of the eggs Ostia (female)  Openings in the anterior ends of the oviducts through which eggs released  from the ovaries into the coelomic cavity enter the oviduct 


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