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PYSC Ch. 8

by: Kristen Pruett

PYSC Ch. 8 Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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Chapter 8 - Memory
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
Ch 8.  Memory    Phenomenon of Memory  ­ Memory: persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of information  Some questions about memory  ­ How do we get that stuff into our heads?  ­ encoding  ­ How do we hold that stuff in our heads?  ­ storage/retention  ­ How do we get that stuff out of our heads?  ­ retrieval  ­ Why do we sometimes forget things?  ­ forgetting  Studying memory: information­processing models  ­ Encoding  ­ Storage  ­ Retrieval  ­ image   Input ­>  Sensory memory: all five senses ­>  Short term memory:  Output  Rehearsal: A control process  ~30 seconds; capacity: 7 +/­ 2 units of info ­>  <­ Long term memory: unlimited duration, unlimited capacity  Have to pass info back to short term memory to use it  Sensory Memory  ­ All incoming information held for only a fraction of a second  ­ Persistence of vision and iconic memory  ­ Persistence of acoustics and echoic memory  Encoding: getting information in  ­ How we encode  ­ Effortful processing  ­ Hermann Ebbinghaus  ­ Retention curve  ­ Primacy effect ­ stuff in the beginning  ­ Recency effect ­ stuff at the end ­ due to your short term memory  ­ The curve in the middle (“U” shape) is the least remembered  Short term memory: capacity  ­ Digit span  Studying memory: information processing models  ­ Working memory: newer understanding of short term memory (STM) that focuses on  conscious, active processing of incoming information  *chart:  Phonological loop central executive visuospatial sketch pad  Verbal and auditory information (circle) visual and spatial info  (rectangle) (rectangle)  Encoding: Getting Information In  ­ Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information (e.g. space, time,  frequency)  ­ Effortful processing: encoding that required attention and conscious effort  ­ Rehearsal: conscious repetition of information  ­ What we encode  ­ Levels of processing  ­ We encode what we expect  ­ Visual encoding: encoding of pictures  ­ Acoustic encoding: encoding of sounds, especially of words  ­ Semantic encoding: encoding of meaning (deep processing)  ­ Self reference effect: better retention for info that we can relate to ourselves than  info that can’t be related to the self  ­ Organizing info for encoding  ­ Chunking: organizing info into familiar, manageable nut  ­ Units should be meaningful!   ­ Ex. Grouping 16 different numbers into years: 1776149218622001  = 1776, 1493, 1862, 2001  Storage: retaining information  ­ Storing implicit and explicit memories  ­ Implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection  ­ Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously  know and declare  ­ Storing memories in the brain  ­ Storing implicit and explicit memories  ­ The hippocampus: located in limbic system; helps process explicit  memories for storage (consolidation)  ­ Left hippocampal damage: disrupted verbal memory  ­ Right hippocampal damage: disrupts visual memory   ­ The cerebellum: implicit memories created by classical condition  ­ Memories are distributed ­ not localized  ­ Stress hormones and memory  ­ Activated stress hormones increase glucose availability to brain  ­ Arousal increases amygdala activity   ­ Flashbulb memories (photographic memory)  ­ Memory for the circumstances surrounding hearing about shocking, highly  charged important events  ­ Highly emotional  ­ Longer duration  ­ Highly vivid  ­ Ex. 9/11, boston marathon bombing, pearl harbor, assassination of  MLK  ­ Example: how did you hear about JFK?  ­ Response 1 day later: “i was in the living room reading a book. My  mom answered the phone when it rang. My grandmother told her  that president kennedy had just been shot, and then she came into  the room and told me.”  ­ Response 3 months later: “my parents and i were watching TV  together. All of a student the program was interrupted and hre  news reported gave an account of what had happened.”  Retrieval: getting info Out  ­ Recall: measure of memory in which person must retrieve informa:on learned earlier   ­ Recognition: measure of memory in which person must identify items previously learned   ­ Relearning ­ measure of memory that assess amount of time saved when learning  material a second time  ­ Retrieval cues  ­ priming: activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory  ­ Context effects  ­ Studying and testing in the same environment improves grade  ­ Moods and memories  ­ State dependent learning: learning is associated with internal states of the  participant  ­ Mood congruent memory: tendency to recall experiences that are  consistent with one’s current food or bad mood  ­ Learning and testing in the same mood (sad/happy) has higher  scores  Forgetting  ­ Encoding failure  ­ Storage decay  ­ Gradual fading of physical memory trace  ­ New learning disrupts retrieval  ­ Like a banana ­ if it starts decaying are you ever geting it back? No ­ same  with a memory   ­ Retrieval failure  ­ Interference   ­ Proactive: old info makes it difficult to learn new info   ­ Retroactive: new info makes it difficult to recall old info   ­ Motivated forgetting  ­ Repression:basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety­arousing  thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness  ­ Can later be recovered (with help from a qualified psychoanalyst)   Memory construction  ­ Misinformation And imagination effects  ­ Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an  event  ­ Ex. car crash   ­ Depiction of actual accident: not that bad (bumped)  ­ Memory construction: car pretty destroyed (smashed)  ­ Previously forgotten details are filled in with plausible ones  ­ Imagining nonexistent events can create false memories 


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