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Notes over material for exam 3

by: Veronica Morgan

Notes over material for exam 3 NTDT 10003

Veronica Morgan
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover whatll be on the next exam
Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Dr. Dority
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Contemporary Nutrition Concerns

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
Notes 3/28/16 Vegetarian Diets - People choose vegetarianism for religious, ethical, or health reasons - Goals are: to obtain neither too few or too many calories, obtain adequate quantities of complete protein, obtain the needed vitamins and minerals Types of Vegetarian Tables Health Benefits - Vegetarian protein foods are higher in fiber, richer in certain vitamins and minerals, and lower in fat compared to meats - If followed properly, may lead to lower rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity - More likely to be at desirable weight, have lower cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure Micronutrients The Vitamins - Discovered over 100 years ago - Potent, essential compound that perform various bodily functions that promote growth and reproduction in addition to maintenance of health - Organic (contain Carbon) - Do not provide calories (energy) - Fat soluble = ADEK - Water soluble = B and C Water soluble vitamins - Found in watery components of food - Fragile in foods – can be washed or destroyed during food storage, processing ,and preparation - Body excretes excess if blood levels rise too high – low risk of toxicity - Only a short – term storage supply available - Daily intake recommended - Deficiency symptoms appear quickly - Work as coenzymes – assist enzymes in doing their metabolic work How minimize water soluble vitamin loss in my foods? - To slow degradation: refrigerate fruits and vegetables - To minimize oxidation: store fruits and vegetables that have been cut in airtight wrappers - To prevent losses during cooking: microwave or steam veg in small amt of water – add veg after water has come to a boil then use the cooking water in soups and casseroles - Avoid high temps and long cooking times Folic Acid – b vitamin and water soluble - Coenzyme for synthesis of DNA and formation of red blood cells - Folate deficiency causes anemia (blood is unable to deliver oxygen to the cells of the body) - Symptoms of deficiency: fatigue, diarrhea, irritability, forgetfulness, headache, lack of appetite - Higher risk of deficiency during growth, since increased folate needed to promote rapid multiplication of cells (pregnancy) - Helps prevent neural tube defects – malformation of spine and brain during embryonic development - Found in fresh greens, leafy vegetables, legumes, and seeds - Easily lost when foods are overcooked, canned, dehydrated - Adult DRI (RDA) is 400mcg - FDA mandated that all grain products enriched with folate Neural tube defects - Spina bifida – incomplete closing of bony casing around the spinal cord – leads to partial paralysis - Anencephaly – major parts of the human brain are missing Vitamin B12 - Important in the protection of nerve fibers - Works closely with folate to produce red blood cells - B12 deficiency: folate unable to build red blood cells = anemia - High levels of folate mask a B12 deficiency – nerve paralysis and damage - Found in animal foods: milk, meat, eggs, and cheese - At risk for deficiency – vegetarians, people who lack intrinsic factor, elderly – atrophic gastritis (inability to produce stomach acid) - Factor lives in stomach acid B vitamins and heart disease - Low intakes of folate, B12, and B6 are linked to increased risk of heart disease because of increase in homocysteine - Homocysteine is a chemical that is toxic to the blood vessels of the heart: it increases blood clot formation, increase damage to arterial walls, and may be toxic for brain tissue and impair cognitive ability Vitamin C - Required for production of collagen which is a protein foundation material for bones, teeth, skin, and tendons - May fight chronic disease by functioning as an antioxidant - Antioxidant prevents damage to the body as a result of chemical reactions that involve the use of oxygen - Free radical is a highly toxic compound created as a result of chemical reactions that involve oxygen - Free radicals can damage protein enzymes, damage cell dna, damage cell membranes and lipids - Found in oranges, citrus fruits, broccoli, strawberries - A single serving of any of these foods provides .5 the Dri for vitamin C - Deficiencies unlikely, except in infants who are not given a source of vitamin C or in children or elderly who do not eat enough fruits and vegetables Vitamin C and the cold - Plays an insignificant role in preventing colds - At best 1g/d may shorten cold by one day and slightly reduce cold symptoms Fat soluble vitamins - Found in fats and oils of foods - Stable in foods - Stored in liver and body fats - Regular intake recommended - Megadoses can build up in toxic levels: dose of 10 or more times the amount normally recommended - Deficiency symptoms develop slowly Vitamin A - Helps maintain epithelial tissues - Epithelial tissue are cells that form the outer surface of the body and line the body cavities and principal passageways - Also involved in production of sperm, normal development of fetuses, immune response, hearing, taste, and growth - Deficiency leads to night blindness - One years’ worth of vitamin A can be stored in the body (90% of liver) only thing that is stored in liver - Deficiency will not develop until stores are depleted – rarely seen in developed countries serious problem in developing countries - Vitamin A toxicity leads to join pain, dryness of skin, hair loss, irritability, fatigue, headaches, weakness, nausea, liver damage - Toxicity is hazard when people take supplements of preformed vitamin A - Little risk of toxicity when take supplements of beta-carotene - Beta carotene – orange colored pigment found in plants that converts to vitamin A - Converts slowly to vit A, so that excess amounts are not stored as vitamin A but stored in fat deposits instead Beta Carotene - Member of carotenoid family - Carotenoids are pigments found in foods that have antioxidant properties - Best sources vitamin A and beta carotene are bright colored fruits and veggies, milk, cheese, butter. Eggs Vitamin D - Major role in bone-making and bone-maintenance - Assists in absorption of dietary calcium - Makes calcium and phosphorus available in the blood to be deposited as the bones harden - Body can synthesize it 4/6/16 Vitamin D - Liver uses cholesterol to make a vitamin D precursor → converted to vitamin D by sun → altered by liver and kidneys to “active” form of vitamin D - Diseases that affect the liver or kidneys may lead to bone deterioration - Liver uses cholesterol to make a vitamin D precursor → converted to vitamin D by sun → altered by liver and kidneys to “active” form of vitamin D - Diseases that affect the liver or kidneys may lead to bone deterioration - Osteomalacia - Occurs in adults - Bones become soft, porous, weak - Bowed legs and curved spine - Rickets - Bone softening in children The minerals - Inorganic compounds found naturally in the earths surface - Major minerals: an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts greater than 5 grams – needed in large amounts in diet - Trace minerals: an essential nutrient found in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams – needed in smaller amounts in diet Calcium - Most abundant mineral in the body - 99% of body’s calcium is in bones - Remaining 1% responsible for transmission of nerve impulses essential for muscle contractions, maintenance of blood pressure, blood clotting, and works as cofactor for many enzymes - Most abundant mineral in the body - 99% of body’s calcium is in bones - Remaining 1% responsible for transmission of nerve impulses essential for muscle contractions, maintenance of blood pressure, blood clotting, and works as cofactor for many enzymes Phosphorous - 2nd most abundant in body - 85% bound with calcium in bone and teeth - Part of DNA and RNA (genetic code material) - Many enzymes and the B vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is attached - 2nd most abundant in body - 85% bound with calcium in bone and teeth - Part of DNA and RNA (genetic code material) - Many enzymes and the B vitamins become active only when a phosphate group is attached Iron - Body’s oxygen carrier when bound to hemoglobin (protein in RBC) - Deficiency = iron deficiency anemia - Symptoms: weakness, tiredness, headaches, increased sensitivity to cold - Caused by malnutrition or blood loss - “Iron overload” = Toxic to tissues, particularly the liver; Most common cause: hemochromatosis - Meats, poultry, and fish are the best source also processed grains - Iron can be obtained from using iron cookware - Heme vs nonheme iron: heme is more readily absorbed - Vitamin C provides iron absorption and can triple the amount of nonheme iron absorbed from foods eaten at the same meal - Tannins (tea, coffee) – can interfere with absorption 4/11/16 Iodine -part of thyroid hormones – regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, and growth -amount of iodine in foods reflects the amounts present in the soil (greatest along coastal regions -iodized salt introduced to prevent deficiencies – still where we get most of our iodine today - Cretinism – severe mental and physical retardation of an infant caused by iodine deficiency during pregnancy - Goiter – enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency Phytochemicals - Nonnutritive substances found in plants that possess health – protective benefits - Act as antioxidants - Lower blood pressure and cholesterol - Prevent cataracts - Slowing or reversing certain cancers - Decrease osteoporosis - An individual fruit or vegetable many contain 50 or more phytochemicals - In supplement form less effective than in whole foods - Absorption, metabolism, distribution, and function of phytochemicals depends on the combination of 1 phytochemical with others, or other substances in that food - Best to follow MyPyramid guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake, plus a variety of whole grains Lycopene - Found in tomato / tomato products - May help reduce risk of prostate and other cancers Tannins - Found in grapes, red and white wine, tea, coffee - Act as antioxidants - May inhibit enzymes that activate carcinogens Food sources of vitamins and minerals - Oil is a source of vitamin E How does US get vitamins and minerals? - Supplements - Food fortification - Food supply - Functional foods Functional Goods - Dietary supplements used by more than 50% of adult population - Functional foods = Foods that provide additional physiological and psychological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs - Ex calcium fortified orange juice Major micronutrient deficiencies on a global scale - Vitamin A – need fruits and vegetable - Iodine – need iodized salt or a coast line - Iron – best absorbed is in meat sources Alcohol and Nutrition What is alcohol? - General term used to describe a group of organic chemicals with common properties - Sedative and central nervous system depressant - Both a tonic and a poison – difference lies mostly in dose - Clear, colorless, volatile liquid - Most commonly ingested form is ethyl alcohol - Supplies energy like the energy nutrients 7cal/g - Not stored in body - Fits into discretionary calories Proof - Way of stating percentage of alcohol in distilled liquor - Twice the percentage of alcohol by volume Alcohol Digested  Virtually no alcohol is absorbed in the mouth and esophagus  Some alcohol absorption takes place in the stomach (~20%)  Upper small intestine is the primary site of alcohol absorption (~ 80%)  Absorbed in small intestine  Goes through portal vein to liver where it is metabolized  Alcohol dehydrogenase is responsible for breaking alcohol down in liver  Breaks it down to acetyl aldehyde and water  Then breaks down to acetone and then CO2 and water  Liver can only metabolize a limited amount of alcohol per hour  Average healthy person can eliminate ~½ ounce of EtOH per hour  Metabolism varies between males and females as well as between people  Alcohol dehydrogenase factor  Food: presence of food in the stomach slows absorption of alcohol  Gender: Women have higher blood alcohol concentrations after consuming the same amount of alcohol as men  Women absorb 30% more alcohol  Smaller amounts of water in women’s bodies = ↑ alcohol concentration  Percentage of alcohol is compared to amount of anything else in blood  Alcohol dehydrogenase is ~40% less active in stomach 


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