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Learning part 2

by: Lauren Thompson

Learning part 2 PSYC-11762-001

Lauren Thompson

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On exam 3
General Psychology
Robin L. Joynes
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Thompson on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-11762-001 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
Learning (Part 2) Wednesday, April 13, 2016 1:12 PM Operant Conditioning  A learning process in which a behavior becomes associated with a consequence. As a result of this association, the consequence influences the probability of that behavior occurring again in the future.  Law of Effect If a behavior is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a behavior is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated  Context  Behavior  Consequences o .Consequences serve to strengthen or weaken the box-lever ” connection  .Context Behavior  Consequence o Consequences serve to strengthen or weaken the box-lever ” connection.  Behaviorism o Behavior changes through rewards and punishments.Can only know that which is directly observable.No speculation about what is going on in the mind.  Types of Consequences o Appetitive  Good things, such as food o Aversive  Bad things, such as shock  Types of Contingencies o Positive  Behavior leads to receiving the consequence o Negative  Behavior leads to the absence or removal of a consequence  The nature of the consequence (appetive vs. aversive) and the nature of the contingency (positive vs. negative) determines whether the response will be:  Reinforcement o More likely to occur (responding )#  Punishment o Less likely to occur (responding )$  “By doing this behavior, I will” o Examples:  Open umbrella à don’t get wet o Question:  How do you reward a behavior that never occurs?  Shaping  Rewarding successive approximations of the goal behavior until the goal behavior has been mastered.  Example: Teaching a dog to roll over.  You may initially reward any behavior that is remotely related to the desired response, such as lying down. Once lying down has been established, then you reward the dog only if it lies down and turns on its back. Simply lying down is no longer rewarded. Once that behavior has been established, the reward may only be given when the dog turns all the way over. You have trained the dog to roll over!  Continuous Reinforcement o Reinforcement occurs after every target response.  Partial Reinforcement  Sometimes the target response is reinforced, and sometimes it is not reinforced.  Fixed Ratio (FR)  There is a set number of times that you must make the response before you are reinforced.  Fixed Interval (FI)  There is a set interval of time that must pass before you can make the response and get reinforced  Variable Ratio (VR)  The number of times that you must make the response before you are reinforced varies from trial to trial  Variable Interval (VI)  The amount of time that must pass before you get reinforced varies from trial to trial.  Operant Conditioning in Real life o Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect  Behaviors that have been partially reinforced are more difficult to extinguish than behaviors that have been continuously reinforced o Instinctive Drift  The tendency for animals to revert to instinctive behaviors that may interfere with learning o Applied Behavior Analysis  A psychotherapy technique that uses the direct application of rewards and punishments to change maladaptive behaviors in humans.


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