Biology Chapter 44 and 45
Biology Chapter 44 and 45 BIOC 0170
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Notetaker on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOC 0170 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Barbara Barnhart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Foundation of Biology I in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 44 – Osmoregulation and Excretion I. Introduction – Define A. Osmoregulation a. The processes by which animals control solute concentrations and balance water gain and loss b. Movement of solute between internal fluids and the external environment B. Excretion a. The process that rids the body of nitrogenous metabolites and other metabolic waste products II. Osmoregulation A. Overall a. Need to regulate both solute and water b. Because when solute is exchanged between internal fluids and external environment, it will also cause water to move by osmosis B. Osmosis a. Main goal is to balance water uptake with water loss C. Osmotic challenges – adapt to environment a. Osmolality – measure of solute in solution; high osmolality = lots of solute 1. Osmoconformers 1. Conforms to environment 2. No control system to regulate osmolority 3. There it the environment dictate it 4. Some marine animals 2. Osmoregulators 1. Control water uptake/loss despite conditions of environment 2. Use energy to do this – spend energy to do this 3. Toleration a. Stenohaline – Can not tolerate substantial changes in external osmolality b. Euryhaline – Can survive large fluctuations in external osmolality 4. Animal Examples a. Marine animals (salt water) - Invertebrate = osmoconformers Ch. 44 1 - Vertebrate – Osmoregulateors - Ex. Bony fishes have less solutes than sea water, therefore they are constantly losing water while drinking sea water - More salt, less water b. Freshwater Animals - Have more solutes than water therefore they are constantly taking in water - Get rid of excess salts in urine - Less salt, more water a. water will leave the fish, b. water will into the fish a. It not beneficial for the fish to leave a lot of water. So the fish will have secretion system that keeps the water in – absorbs the water back so it wont dehydrate. (kidney or other form) b. The fish will be bloated. The fish will excrete water so it wont get bloated. c. Aquatic Special Cases (temporary water sources) - Anhydrobiosis – adaption of some aquatic vertebrates when their environment dries up - Body loses all water and goes dormant - Ex. Sea monkey d. Land Animals - Will die if become dehydrated - Land animals lose water via urine, feces, from skin, etc. Ch. 44 2 - Drink/eat food with high water content to maintain water balance - Some lad animals have special anatomy to save water (Ex. Camel) D. Transport Epithelia a. Selectively permeable membrane b. Are layers of epithelia cells that regulate solute movement in controlled amounts in specific directions c. Arranged in tubular network d. Utilized countercurrent exchange - the U - exchange as we go e. Important for: water disposal and minimize change in body fluid f. Transport epithelia can either: 1. Face external environment 2. Or line channels than open to body surface. Ch. 44 3 Marine bird drinks saltwater in nasal glands have secretory tubule lined with transport epithelia which can either -face external environment -or line channels that open to body surface blood flows opposite of salt secretion salt leaves blood and goes to secretory tubule and excreted III. Nitrogenous Wastes Broken down protein and nucleic acids produce ammonia Eating a lot of protein meaning making a lot of ammonia A. Forms a. Ammonia i. High toxicity ii. Excreted across body surface/gills to surrounding water ( aquatic animals) iii. Occurs easily by diffusion B. Urea a. Product of Co2 and NH3 b. Low toxicity c. Occurs in mammals/adults amphibians d. Use liver to convert ammonia to urea e. Moved to kidney, concentrated and removed f. Less water is lost g. Disadvantages is energy required to convert ammonia to urea C. Uric Acid a. Non-toxic b. Bird, insets and reptiles c. Paste – it is insoluble d. Excreted with little water loss e. Needs the most ATP f. …humans can produce uric acid which leads to goat ( inflammation of joints) Ch. 44 4 IV. Excretory Systems A. Process of Excretion a. Filtration i. Filtrate = water and smell solutes (salts, sugars, amino acids and nitrogenous bases) ii. Filtration is the removal of waste from body fluid iii. It is driven by hydrostatic pressure iv. Body fluid comes in contact with transport epithelium b. Reabsorption i. Reclaim anything valuable (such as water) ii. Returns valuables to body fluids iii. Only non-essential solutes remain c. Secretion i. Remove toxins and other solutes from body fluid ii. Done by active transport iii. Something that was missed d. Excretion i. Remove it from system ii. Released as urine Ch. 44 5 B. Excretory Systems a. Usually are a network of tubules b. Excretory systems are central to homeostasis i. Dispose wastes ii. Control body fluid c. All osmoregulation the animal’s system i. Fluid in the concentration d. Protonephridia i. Protonephridia – Flame Cells 1. Dead end tubes that filter body fluids 2. Facilitated by beating of cilia 3. Find in flatworms and planarias C. Metanephridia – nephridia a. Open-ended tubes that collect coelomic fluid and make urine b. Components consist of an internal opening, collecting tubule, bladder and an external opening Ch. 44 6 c. Find in an earthworm D. Malpighian Tubules a. Remove nitrogenous waste fro body fluid ( hemolymph – open circulation) b. Malpighian tubules extend from dead end tip immerse in hemolymph to opening in the digestive track c. Find in insects Ch. 44 7 E. Kidneys - mammals a. Functions in both osmoregulation (solute concentration in balance ) and excretion b. Have highly organized and compacted tubules c. Filter so we can Excretes urine and waste d. Fine in vertebrates Ch. 44 8 V. Mammalian Kidney A. Overall a. Water balance and salt regulation b. Kidney made of blood vessels and excretory tubules i. Blood vessels = renal vein ii. Excretory tubules = nephrons, collecting ducts, ureter c. Renal cortex and renal medulla are supplied with blood by the renal artery and drained by the renal vein d. Renal pelvis is collected and then exit. e. Urine exits renal pelvis through a duct = ureter f. Ureters drains the urine into the urinary bladder g. Urine is the drained through urethra during urination B. Nephron a. The major function unit of the kidney b. It is a long tube plus a ball of capillaries c. The ball of capillaries is called glomerulus d. It’s job i. To filter blood ii. Blood pressure pushes fluid into kidney (non-selective) Ch. 44 9 iii. Fluid moves from glomerulus (because of the ball capillaries) to Bowman’s capsules 1. Bowman’s Capsule a. Surrounds the glomerulus b. Contains small molecules in fluid(salts, glucose, urea) i. Kidney makes urea c. Permeable to water and small solutes but not blood cells or large molecules d. Blood pressure forces transfer of fluid 2. Path of Filtered Fluid a. Glomerulus à Bowman’s Capsule à Proximal Tubule à Loop of Henle à Distal Tubule à Collecting Duct à Ureter à Urinary Bladder C. Blood Filtrate to Urine a. In Nephron i. Bowman’s Capsule – filtrating 1. Blood pressure forces fluid form the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen(cavity) of the Bowman’s Capsule ii. Proximal Tubule – reabsorbing and secreting 1. Found in Renal Cortex 2. Reabsorption and Secretion a. Reabsorption of valuable into peritubular capillaries b. Secretion of H+ and ammonia 3. Because we are using changing fluid around, we gonna Change volume and composition of stuff filtered from blood (becomes concentrated) iii. Loop of Henle 1. Descending limb a. Water is reabsorbed into interstitial fluid by not salt b. Water can be reabsorbed becuz it has an aquaporin – transport protein 2. Ascending Limb a. Salt is reabsorbed here b. Has an ion channel – transport proteins 3. Result is that filtrate become more dilute iv. Distal Tubule – also reabsorption and secretion and regulation 1. Occurs in renal cortex 2. Regulates potassium and salt concentration of body fluid a. Reabsorb of salt, water and bicarbonate b. Secretion of potassium H+ Ch. 44 10 3. By working with these ions ( bicarbonate and H+ ) it will helps regulate pH v. Collecting Duct 1. Located in renal medulla 2. Moves filtrate through medulla to renal pelvis 3. Reabsorbs salts 4. Forms urine V. Mammalian Kidney The function of each of those tube sections allows the kidney to make urine that is much more concentrated (has less water and more solutes than body fluid). Ch. 44 11 The excretory system Eliminates nitrogenous wastes – get it from proteins and amino acid. Produces urine Maintains salt balance Maintains water balance Does NOT eliminate undigested foods! VI. Conservation of Water in Mammalian Kidney A. Solute Gradients a. Loop of Henle and Collecting Ducts i. Make an osmotic gradient that concentrate urine ii. High to Low b. Countercurrent Multiplier System i. Loop of Henle 1. Keeps salt concentration inside kidney high to make concentrated urine ii. Collecting Duct (medulla overall) 1. Passes through an osmolality gradient 2. Water leaves through via osmosis iii. Collecting Duct (Inner medulla only) 1. Where urea can pass across epithelium of the collecting that is the inner medulla 2. The urea is recycled by diffusion into loop of Henle 3. Continual leakage from the collecting duct maintains high interstitial urea concentration iv. Urine 1. Final Urine made is hyperosmotic(lot of concentration) to blood Ch. 44 12 B. Regulation of Kidney Function a. Nervous System and Hormones i. Manage the osmoregulatory function of the mammalian kidney ii. Adjust rate of water and salt reabsorption in kidney iii. Hormones 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) a. Release by posterior pituitary gland when blood osmolality rises (low water intake - dehydrate) b. Body is to concentrated with water c. Helps water reabsorb in collecting duct 2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System (RAAS) a. Renin is released when blood pressure or blood volume drops b. Angiotensin II is formed in response to renin ( it is release) i. Constricts arterioles and causes adrenal glands to release aldosterone 1. Increase blood pressure ii. Aldosterone causes distal tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb more sodium and water thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Ch. 44 13 VII. Environmental Adaptations A. Desert a. These mammals have most hyperosmotic urine of all animals b. Have long loops of Henle i. Because to contain the water. Reabsorb the water B. Rainforest/Aquatic a. Have less concentrated urine b. Have short loops of Henle i. Have too much water and produce the more urine C. Freshwater Fish/Amphibians a. Makes lot of dilute urine b. Kidney have low filtration rate D. Birds/Reptiles a. Insoluble uric acid b. Done need much water to excrete Ch. 44 14 Biosc 0170 Chapter 45, Endocrine System (Hormones) I. Introduction a. Hormone – a chemical signal secreted from glands, transported by body fluids, transported by body fluids to produce a specific effect on a cell that is far away b. Endocrine system – the internal system of communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to hormones. Functions in concert with the nervous system to effect internal regulation and maintain homeostasis II. Endocrine and Nervous System a. Individually i. Nervous System 1. Sends high speed electrical signals through neurons ii. Endocrine System 1. Sends slower speed hormonal signals through circulator system 2. Provides longer lasting effects and response b. Together – maintain homeostasis, development and reproduction c. Review Intercellular Communication i. Endocrine Signaling – long distance 1. Excreted hormones from endocrine cells in extracellular fluid reaches target cell through bloodstream/hemolymph Ch 45 1 Biosc 0170 ii. Paracrine and Autocrine Signaling ( loval regulartors – short distance) 1. Paracrine – secreted molecule diffuses locally and trigger response in neighboring cells 2. Autocrine a. Secreted molecules diffuse locally and trigger a response in the same cells that secrete them iii. Synaptic and Neuroendocrine Signaling 1. Synaptic Signaling a. Neurotransmitter diffuse across synapses and trigger responses in the cell of target tissues i. Neurons, muscle , or glands b. Neuroendocrine Signaling Ch 45 2 Biosc 0170 i. Neurohomones diffuse in to the bloodstream and trigger response in target cell anywhere in the body All work through feedback loops Final response affects initial stimulus (by turning it on/off) Positive feedback Reinforces a stimulus creating greater response Negative feedback Final response turns off stimulus III. How do hormones cause response? a. What are hormones? i. Proteins and Peptides 1. Hydrophilic 2. Water soluble ii. Amines Ch 45 3 Biosc 0170 1. Hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic 2. Water and/or fat soluble iii. Steroids 1. Hydrophobic and Fat soluble Enzymes are protein b. How do they Signal? i. Reception – has to be received 1. Different type of receptors for water soluble versus fat soluble 2. Water soluble hormone binds to cell surface receptors 3. Fat soluble hormone pass through cell membrane and has receptors in cytoplasm or nucleus a. Hormones are able to go through the cell membrane ii. Transduction) 1. Occurs the same way for both water and fat soluble Ch 45 4 Biosc 0170 2. Converts the signal to a form that can bring about a response 3. Usually a sequence of reactions (relay molecules) 4. Signal passes from protein to protein iii. Response (both water and fat soluble) 1. Same hormone that can cause different effects on different cell types 2. Depends on a. Different receptors on different cell types for same hormone b. Different transductions pathways – series of reaction c. Different proteins to carry out response 3. Each cell is varied, so the cell that is caused by the same hormone can be different 4. Response almost always cause change in gene expression because hormone turn on/off a transcription factor Ch 45 5 Biosc 0170 c. Local Regulators i. Are NOT hormones ii. Short-distance signaling (which means a quicker response) iii. Paracrine and autocrine signaling ( it is for short distance) iv. Types of Local Regulators 1. Cytokines – immune response 2. Growth Factors – cell proliferation and differentiation( cell specialize) 3. Nitric Oxide – Nitric oxide – made by blood vessel when oxygen level decreases - laughing gas - dental a. It causes blood vessel to Dilated b. Breaks down quickly 4. Prostaglandins a. Induce i. Muscle contraction in labor, fever, pain sensation and aggregation of platelets IV. Control Center for Hormones a. Hypothalamus i. Lower brain ii. Neurosecretory cells are made and makes: Ch 45 6 Biosc 0170 1. Direct acting hormones a. Stored/ released from posterior pituitary b. Control release of other hormones from other endocrine glands iii. Tropic hormones 1. Stored in anterior pituitary 2. Control release of other hormones from other endocrine glands b. Posterior Pituitary Hormones ( acting on non-endocrine tissues) i. Oxytocin 1. Induces contractions of the uterus and milk production ii. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 1. Helps kidney reabsorb water c. Anterior Pituitary Hormones i. Tropic Hormones 1. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) a. Tells thyroid to make hormone 2. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 3. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Ch 45 7 Biosc 0170 4. FSH and LH tell the ovaries and testes to make hormones 5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) a. Tells adrenal glands to make and secrete steroid hormones ii. Non-Tropic Hormones 1. Prolactin a. Stimulates lactation 2. Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) a. Skin pigmentation and fat metabolism 3. -endorphin a. Inhibit your ability to feel pain Ch 45 8 Biosc 0170 iii. Both Tropic and Non-Tropic 1. Growth Hormones (GH) a. Targets liver, bones and other tissues b. Promotes growth (non- tropic) c. Stimulates production of growth factors from other tissues (tropic V. Hormones made by other Endocrine Glands a. Thyroid i. Triiodothyronine (T ) 3 ii. Thyroxine (T4) 1. Maintain homeostatis: heart rate, bp, and metabolism 2. Also affects development iii. Overactive Thyroid = Hyperthyroidism 1. Graves disease – making too much hormones 2. Profuse sweating, high blood pressure, protruding eyes iv. Goiter = Enlarged thyroid because not enough iodine in our body 1. Thyroid cant make T3 and T4 hormones 2. Gov added iodine in to the salt v. Control of thyroid 1. By the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary through negative feedback – turning off a response 2. T3 turns off anterior pituitary Ch 45 9 Biosc 0170 3. T4 turns off hypothalamus – maintaining a homeostatis b. Parathyroids - Calcium homeostasis i. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) – increases calcium 1. Increase calcium levels in blood (from bones and kidneys) 2. It will Activates Vitamin D which helps calcium uptake in intestines ii. Calcitonin -decreases 1. It will decrease calcium levels in blood c. Pancreas – blood sugar homestatis i. Insulin 1. Decreases blood glucose level after meal (Beta cells) 2. Cause cells to take up glucose 3. Promotes fat storages 4. Tells liver to stop breaking down glycogens ii. Glucagon 1. Increase blood glucose level several hours later (alpha cells) 2. Tells liver to break down glycogen and break down fat Ch 45 10 Biosc 0170 a. When we are not eating iii. Diabetes Mellitus 1. Elevates blood glucose levels 2. Problem is that either no insulin or tissues do not responds to insulin 3. Type 1 Diabetes a. Immune system destroys beta cells b. “insulin department: c. Usually get as a child d. Pumping insulin into the body 4. Types 2 a. Reduced responses of target cells b. Non-insuline dependent c. Late onset – tends to be dued to lifestyles. 5. Adrenal Glands (on the top of kidnety) a. Cortex i. Glucocorticoids ( cortisol) 1. Affects glucose metabolism and immune sys iv. Cortex v. Clucocoritcods (cortisol) Affect glucose metabolism and immune system Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) Salt and water homeostasis Ch 45 11 Biosc 0170 Sex horomones (small amount) d. Gonads (Testes and ovaries – sex hormones) i. iDevelop and maintenance of male reproductive system ii. increase muscle and bone mass (anabolic steroids) iii. Estrogens – Development and maintenance of female reproductive system iv. Progestins – Prepare and maintain uterus for preganany e. Pineal gland i. Melatonin 1. Reasons to light/ dark 2. Regulates biological rhythm 3. Affects sleeping patters ( relapsed at night) 4. Affects reproduction pattern (seasonal) VI. What about invertebrates? a. Insects Need 3 Hormones i. Brain hormone ii. Ecdysone Ch 45 12 Biosc 0170 iii. Juvenile hormone Insects need 3 hormones for Molting and Development Brain hormone Stimulates release of ecdysone from prothoracic glands Ecdysone Promotes molting and development of adult characteristics Catepiller à butterfly Juvenile hormone Allows bug to retain larval characteristics Can still molt, but just becomes larger larva Ch 45 13
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