Management Chapter 13-15
Management Chapter 13-15 BCOR 370
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Della Sala on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BCOR 370 at West Virginia University taught by DeMarco in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Management in Business at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
EXAM 4 CHAPTERS 1315 CHAPTER 13: MANAGERS AS LEADERS Leadership Process of influence aimed at directing behavior toward the accomplishment of objectives Leaders: people who use critical thinking to successfully influence others to get positive organizational results through motivation and communication Leadership in a Global Economy Modality of communication has had a significant impact on leadership styles and behavior Globalization companies affected by external forces that can significantly change management challenges How do Leaders Gain Authority Power o Ability to influence o Leaders may be given power to earn it Types of Power Positional Power o Influence that is granted because of a manager’s type and ability to affect someone positively or negatively through resource allocation or disciplinary measures Personal Power o Influence that is obtained by being perceived as likeable and well informed Types of Personal Power Referent Power o Influence that is based on a manager’s appealing traits or resources, such as charisma or the ability to offer an employee a promotion Expert Power o Influence that is derived from perceived knowledge, skill, or competence Ex. A manager that is skilled in computer programming has expert power with a software development team Types of Leaders Directive leadership o Involved providing specific, taskfocused directions, giving commands, assigning goals, close supervision, and constant followup o Influence based on position or legitimate power Transactional leadership o Creates reward contingencies and exchange relationships that result in calculative compliance on the part of followers o Provides rewards or punishments for performance Transformational leadership o Creating and communication a higherlevel vision in a charismatic way that elicits an emotional response and commitment from the followers Empowering leadership o Emphasizes employee selfinfluence processes rather than hierarchical control processes o Actively encourages followers to take ownership of their own behaviors and work processes o “Leading others to lead themselves” The Evolution of Leadership Trait perspective o System of ideas that focuses on identifying effective leaders through personal characteristics that are difficult to obtain or cannot be learned o Great Man Leaders: persons born into positions of power and authority and seen by some as having divine right to power Males were the predominant leaders throughout history Women are assuming more formal leadership roles throughout society Traits of Women Leaders Perseverance A Nurturing Spirit Confidence Giving Back Education Balance and Understanding Your Own Needs Vision Emotional Intelligence (El) four major emotional factors drive leadership performance o Self Awareness o Selfmanagement o Social awareness o Relationship management Behavioral Perspective Connects what managers do to their ability to influence others Types of Behaviors Task behaviors: help team members achieve goals Relationship behaviors: enable team members to be satisfied with one another and their situation Michigan Studies Employee oriented o Focus on building interpersonal relationships Product oriented o Focus on task completion Contingency Perspective Rejects the notion that there is one best way to lead Fiedler’s Contingency Theory matches the most suitable leadership style with a particular business situation o Least preferred coworker scale defines leadership style High scorers are relationship motivated Low scorers are task motivated o Leadership situation defined by: Leadermember relations Task structure Position power PathGoal Theory Focuses on leadership behaviors that motivate a team through clarification, support, and removal of barriers in pursuit of a goal Four categories of leader behavior o Directive (following up, guiding, consistency) o Supportive (nurturing, caring, gentle) o Participative (involved, engages, sharing power) o Achievement oriented (sales high expectations, challenging, energetic Team member characteristics determine how leader is perceived by the team o Need for affiliation o Preference for structure o Desire for control o Selfperceived level of ability Task characteristics also influence the team’s motivation o Task design o System authority o Group norms Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership Transformational leaders o Uplift and inspire their followers to higher levels of motivation and commitment achieved by: Idealized influence and inspiration Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Charismatic leadership o Ability to motivate employees to exceed expected performance through a leaders inspiring behavior Pseudotransformational leaders o Although effective, their primary aim and goals are to seek personal power and wealth or cause harm to others Empowering leadership o Encourages followers to take greater responsibility for their behavior Particularly appropriate in today’s dynamic and decentralized organizations Empowerment Methods Fostering initiative and creativity Supporting individual decision making Giving fewer commands and orders Creating independence and interdependence while avoiding dependence Allowing mistakes and avoiding punishment Listening more while talking less Advocating and modeling selfleadership Contemporary Perspectives Selfleadership o Process through which people influence themselves to achieve the selfdirection and selfmotivation necessary to perform Behaviorfocused strategies Natural reward strategies Constructive thought strategies Beyond Traditional Leadership Servant Leader o Focuses on the needs, objectives, and aspirations of team members to help them achieve organizational goals o Ideally suited to the service industry Shared leadership o Collaborative process in which team members share key leadership roles o Generally involves employees engaging in effective selfleadership and responsible followership Authentic leadership o Encourages positive psychological capacities, an ethical climate, greater self awareness, and internalized, moral perspective, a balanced processing of information, and selfdevelopment CHAPTER 14: HOW INDIVIDUALS MAKE A DIFFERENCE Positive Psychology Explores ways to help people recognize their positive traits or strengths, rather than their perceived weaknesses and failings Stress Psychological and emotional reactions experienced by individuals to excessive pressure or demands at work Consequences of Stress Absenteeism Burnout Negative affectivity: general dimension of personality where an individual experiences negative mood states o Lowers likelihood of making contributions to the organization What is General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)? Physiological reactions to longterm stress that can be grouped into three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion How do we decrease stress? Selfawareness Purposeful thinking Relationships (healthy) Challenging Work Pleasureful tasks o Provide an immediate feeling of joy and delight, with little effect on overall life satisfaction Purposeful tasks o Provide a sense of accomplishment that has lasting meaning What is Moral Courage? Taking a position against something or someone even though you know the outcome may be unpopular Involves taking risks o The probability of loss or undesirable consequences Joyful Living Feelings and emotions defined by interest, passion, curiosity, contentment, enthusiasm, satisfaction and quality of life Power of Perception Perception o Process by which individuals select, interpret, and organize information in the world around them Selective Perception o Process by which individuals accept information consistent with their values and beliefs, while screening out information that is not aligned with their own needs Commitment o Degree to which an employee is psychologically devoted to an organization or team Confidence o Certainty about handling something that a person desires or needs to do Type of Personality Type A o Behavioral pattern where individuals tend to be ambitious, goal oriented, impatient, determined, highly organized, competitive, and aggressive Type B o Behavioral pattern where individuals tend to be more patient, relaxed, easygoing, and more sensitive to the feelings of others Developing Psychological Contract Informal expectations between employee and organization that determines quality and satisfaction Big 5 Personality Traits 1. Openness: ability to have fun and feel elation and delight 2. Conscientiousness: when an individual exhibits thoughtfulness, organization, and responsibility in the pursuit of goals 3. Neuroticism: tend to be tense, moody, irritable, and anxious 4. Extraversion: people generally outgoing, sociable, talkative, and able to get on well with others 5. Agreeableness: extent to which an individual relates to others by being trusting, forgiving, kind, affectionate, and cooperative Understanding Personalities and Strengths Attitudes o Person’s or group’s inclinations toward an idea or situation Individual differences o Variable psychological, behavioral, cultural, and physical dimensions that uniquely distinguish each member What are the three areas that managers focus on in relation to personality? 1. Locus of Control a. Degree to which an individual or team feels in control of circumstances and outcomes i. Internal: one feels in control of own fate ii. External: one feels that fate, rather than the actions of an individual, controls outcomes in life 2. Authoritarianism a. Management philosophy that using the threat of punishment, power, and legitimacy is required to produce superior results b. Less prevalent as organizations have adopted flatter structures 3. Machiavellianism a. Pragmatic management philosophy that condones unethical and manipulative behavior if it produces desirable results b. Machiavellian leaders have little respect for their subordinates, tend to take credit for their ideas, and rule with fear What is Citizenship? Commitment to the overall functions of the team and organizational culture in order to improve performance Emotional Intelligence (EI): Capacity to recognize and appreciate emotional responses in one’s self and others (EQ): managers who have insight into their own emotions and the feelings of others can inspire a higher quality of work performance o Requires getting substantial feedback from others to increase selfawareness CHAPTER 15: COMMUNICATING AND MOTIVATING OTHERS How Managers achieve great results with others: “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” – John Quincy Adams What is Motivation? Incentive or drive to complete a task, function, or idea All our behaviors are motivated by an intrinsic desire to do well What is Communication? Act of transmitting information, thoughts, and processes through various channels Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological: basic items that we need to ensure our survival Safety: need for an environment that is safe, both physically and mentally Affiliation/Belongingness: desire to be accepted by others and to find out place in social settings Esteem: need to be respected and appreciated by others SelfActualization: need for personal growth and selfdevelopment ERG Theory of Motivation Clayton Alderfer o System that sets out three categories of human needs, movement within the hierarchy can be up or down o Existence needs describe our physiological and safety needs o Relatedness needs reflect our desire for good relationships with others o Growth needs need for personal fulfillment, selfdevelopment, and accomplishment Two Factor Theory of Motivation Fredrick Herzberg Dual theory, based on job satisfaction and/or job dissatisfaction and the extent to which attitudes influence outcomes Hygienes e.g., working conditions, wages, job security and company policy Motivators opportunities for personal growth, such as recognition, achievement, and advancement What is Oral Communication? Provides verbal discussions, ideas, and processes, either oneonone or as a group (face toface) Advantages o Helps to build relationships o Accelerates decision making and problem solving o Provides a forum for immediate feedback Disadvantages o Informal nature may lead to vague or reckless statements o Unless recorded, messages may be unreliable, unstable, and incomplete Written Communication Advantages o Greater time may be devoted to message preparation o Message can be archived o Receiver has more time to interpret the message Disadvantages o Time and effort required to prepare an effective statement o Does not permit spontaneous or immediate feedback o Sender does not know whether message has been interpreted as intended What is Channel Richness? Capacity to convey as much information as possible during the communication process Barriers Filtering: message is screened before being passes on to the receiver o May be resolved with simple language and reliance on several communication channels Emotion: mood affects communication o May be overcome with awareness of one’s feelings and constraining them when communicating Information overload: large amounts of information can lead to confusion o Prioritize work to avoid simultaneous waves of information Differing perceptions: imposing one’s own reality o Overcome by examining our assumptions and seeking constructive feedback Overcoming Communication Barriers Listening: active effort to understand, learn, and obtain information from others o Give speaker full attention o Avoid distractions o Don’t interrupt o Read nonverbal cues In the case of global networks, learn to understand different culture and teach teams to communicate effectively in virtual organizations Communication Networks Grapevine o Informal line of communication where information is passed from one person to another Gossip Chain o Several individuals spread information through an organization, which is sometime false or misleading Cluster chain o Group of people that disseminate information within their group or cluster To become a more effective communicator and motivator a manager must display: Compassion Conscientiousness Forgiveness Gratitude Grit Humility Mindfulness Openness Wisdom Power of Challenging Work PorterLawler introduced two types of rewards into expectancy theory o Intrinsic rewards: positive feelings experienced as a result of achieving the task o Extrinsic rewards: concrete rewards (ex. Bonuses, promotions) Goal Setting theory o Motivation will be increased by clear, challenging, specific goals where employees are fully committed and encourages to give feedback o Goals focus attention and direct efforts to achieve a specific target o Achieving goals and produces a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction Reinforcement Theory Behavioral construct where individuals may be rewarded or punished based on the consequences of their behavior o Reinforcement schedules Fixedinterval: a set period of time Variable interval: implemented after a varying period of time to reward successful performance Fixed ratio: where a specific amount of behaviors must be met before reward is given Positive reinforcement o Reward given to motivate a person or group which is usually stated verbally or with ‘pats on the back’ and words of encouragement Avoidance learning o Benefits theory, also called negative reinforcement, which postulates that behavior is strengthened by the removal of negative statements or actions Extinction o Behavioral method that involves withholding praise or a positive reward Reward Systems Theory that provides prizes, incentives for tasks and jobs well done, and special recognition Types of Reward Systems 1. Meritbased rewards a. Positive reinforcement based on specific accomplishments, with rewards given for achievement of specified measurements 2. Piecerate incentives a. Awards and prizes given at a specific rate as accomplishments occur, rather than all at one time 3. Scanlon plan a. System that recognizes and rewards individuals for collaboration, leadership, education, and training given to another individual or group cohesively 4. Equity Theory a. System that holds the individuals are more motivated if they perceive that they are being treated as fairly as their fellow workers or those in other firms 5. Stock Options a. Company stocks given to employees as additional compensation or incentives, usually at a discounted price for a limited time 6. Gainsharing a. System that allows employees to share in any cost savings made by the firm
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