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Management Chapter 13-15

by: Carly Della Sala

Management Chapter 13-15 BCOR 370

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Business > BCOR 370 > Management Chapter 13 15
Carly Della Sala
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About this Document

Notes cover materials from chapters 13-15.
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Della Sala on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BCOR 370 at West Virginia University taught by DeMarco in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Management in Business at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
EXAM 4 CHAPTERS 13­15 CHAPTER 13: MANAGERS AS LEADERS Leadership ­ Process of influence aimed at directing behavior toward the accomplishment of  objectives Leaders: people who use critical thinking to successfully influence others to get positive  organizational results through motivation and communication Leadership in a Global Economy ­ Modality of communication has had a significant impact on leadership styles and  behavior ­ Globalization companies affected by external forces that can significantly change  management challenges How do Leaders Gain Authority ­ Power o Ability to influence  o Leaders may be given power to earn it Types of Power ­ Positional Power o Influence that is granted because of a manager’s type and ability to affect  someone positively or negatively through resource allocation or disciplinary  measures ­ Personal Power o Influence that is obtained by being perceived as likeable and well informed  Types of Personal Power ­ Referent Power o Influence that is based on a manager’s appealing traits or resources, such as  charisma or the ability to offer an employee a promotion ­ Expert Power o Influence that is derived from perceived knowledge, skill, or competence  Ex. A manager that is skilled in computer programming has expert power  with a software development team Types of Leaders ­ Directive leadership o Involved providing specific, task­focused directions, giving commands, assigning  goals, close supervision, and constant follow­up o Influence based on position or legitimate power ­ Transactional leadership o Creates reward contingencies and exchange relationships that result in calculative  compliance on the part of followers o Provides rewards or punishments for performance ­ Transformational leadership o Creating and communication a higher­level vision in a charismatic way that elicits an emotional response and commitment from the followers ­ Empowering leadership o Emphasizes employee self­influence processes rather than hierarchical control  processes o Actively encourages followers to take ownership of their own behaviors and work processes o “Leading others to lead themselves” The Evolution of Leadership ­ Trait perspective o System of ideas that focuses on identifying effective leaders through personal  characteristics that are difficult to obtain or cannot be learned o Great Man Leaders: persons born into positions of power and authority and seen  by some as having divine right to power  Males were the predominant leaders throughout history  Women are assuming more formal leadership roles throughout society Traits of Women Leaders ­ Perseverance ­ A Nurturing Spirit ­ Confidence ­ Giving Back ­ Education ­ Balance and Understanding Your Own Needs ­ Vision Emotional Intelligence ­ (El)­ four major emotional factors drive leadership performance o Self Awareness o Self­management o Social awareness o Relationship management Behavioral Perspective ­ Connects what managers do to their ability to influence others Types of Behaviors ­ Task behaviors: help team members achieve goals ­ Relationship behaviors: enable team members to be satisfied with one another and their  situation Michigan Studies ­ Employee oriented o Focus on building interpersonal relationships ­ Product oriented o Focus on task completion Contingency Perspective ­ Rejects the notion that there is one best way to lead Fiedler’s Contingency Theory ­ matches the most suitable leadership style with a particular business situation o Least preferred coworker scale­ defines leadership style  High scorers are relationship motivated  Low scorers are task motivated o Leadership situation defined by:  Leader­member relations  Task structure  Position power Path­Goal Theory ­ Focuses on leadership behaviors that motivate a team through clarification, support, and  removal of barriers in pursuit of a goal ­ Four categories of leader behavior o Directive (following up, guiding, consistency) o Supportive (nurturing, caring, gentle) o Participative (involved, engages, sharing power) o Achievement oriented (sales high expectations, challenging, energetic ­ Team member characteristics determine how leader is perceived by the team o Need for affiliation o Preference for structure o Desire for control o Self­perceived level of ability ­ Task characteristics also influence the team’s motivation o Task design o System authority o Group norms Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership ­ Transformational leaders o Uplift and inspire their followers to higher levels of motivation and commitment  achieved by:  Idealized influence and inspiration  Intellectual stimulation  Individualized consideration ­ Charismatic leadership o Ability to motivate employees to exceed expected performance through a leaders  inspiring behavior ­ Pseudotransformational leaders o Although effective, their primary aim and goals are to seek personal power and  wealth or cause harm to others ­ Empowering leadership o Encourages followers to take greater responsibility for their behavior  Particularly appropriate in today’s dynamic and decentralized  organizations Empowerment Methods ­ Fostering initiative and creativity ­ Supporting individual decision making ­ Giving fewer commands and orders ­ Creating independence and interdependence while avoiding dependence ­ Allowing mistakes and avoiding punishment ­ Listening more while talking less ­ Advocating and modeling self­leadership Contemporary Perspectives ­ Self­leadership o Process through which people influence themselves to achieve the self­direction  and self­motivation necessary to perform  Behavior­focused strategies  Natural reward strategies  Constructive thought strategies Beyond Traditional Leadership ­ Servant Leader o Focuses on the needs, objectives, and aspirations of team members to help them  achieve organizational goals o Ideally suited to the service industry ­ Shared leadership o Collaborative process in which team members share key leadership roles o Generally involves employees engaging in effective self­leadership and  responsible followership ­ Authentic leadership o Encourages positive psychological capacities, an ethical climate, greater self­ awareness, and internalized, moral perspective, a balanced processing of  information, and self­development CHAPTER 14: HOW INDIVIDUALS MAKE A DIFFERENCE Positive Psychology ­ Explores ways to help people recognize their positive traits or strengths, rather than their  perceived weaknesses and failings Stress ­ Psychological and emotional reactions experienced by individuals to excessive pressure  or demands at work Consequences of Stress ­ Absenteeism ­ Burnout ­ Negative affectivity: general dimension of personality where an individual experiences  negative mood states o Lowers likelihood of making contributions to the organization What is General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)? ­ Physiological reactions to long­term stress that can be grouped into three stages: alarm,  resistance, and exhaustion How do we decrease stress? ­ Self­awareness ­ Purposeful thinking ­ Relationships (healthy) Challenging Work ­ Pleasureful tasks o Provide an immediate feeling of joy and delight, with little effect on overall life  satisfaction ­ Purposeful tasks o Provide a sense of accomplishment that has lasting meaning What is Moral Courage? ­ Taking a position against something or someone even though you know the outcome may be unpopular ­ Involves taking risks o The probability of loss or undesirable consequences Joyful Living ­ Feelings and emotions defined by interest, passion, curiosity, contentment, enthusiasm,  satisfaction and quality of life Power of Perception ­ Perception o Process by which individuals select, interpret, and organize information in the  world around them ­ Selective Perception o Process by which individuals accept information consistent with their values and  beliefs, while screening out information that is not aligned with their own needs ­ Commitment o Degree to which an employee is psychologically devoted to an organization or  team ­ Confidence o Certainty about handling something that a person desires or needs to do Type of Personality ­ Type A o Behavioral pattern where individuals tend to be ambitious, goal oriented,  impatient, determined, highly organized, competitive, and aggressive ­ Type B o Behavioral pattern where individuals tend to be more patient, relaxed, easygoing,  and more sensitive to the feelings of others Developing Psychological Contract ­ Informal expectations between employee and organization that determines quality and  satisfaction Big 5 Personality Traits 1. Openness: ability to have fun and feel elation and delight 2. Conscientiousness: when an individual exhibits thoughtfulness, organization, and  responsibility in the pursuit of goals 3. Neuroticism: tend to be tense, moody, irritable, and anxious 4. Extraversion: people generally outgoing, sociable, talkative, and able to get on well with  others 5. Agreeableness: extent to which an individual relates to others by being trusting,  forgiving, kind, affectionate, and cooperative Understanding Personalities and Strengths ­ Attitudes o Person’s or group’s inclinations toward an idea or situation ­ Individual differences o Variable psychological, behavioral, cultural, and physical dimensions that  uniquely distinguish each member What are the three areas that managers focus on in relation to personality? 1. Locus of Control a. Degree to which an individual or team feels in control of circumstances and  outcomes i. Internal: one feels in control of own fate ii. External: one feels that fate, rather than the actions of an individual,  controls outcomes in life 2. Authoritarianism a. Management philosophy that using the threat of punishment, power, and  legitimacy is required to produce superior results b. Less prevalent as organizations have adopted flatter structures 3. Machiavellianism a. Pragmatic management philosophy that condones unethical and manipulative  behavior if it produces desirable results b. Machiavellian leaders have little respect for their subordinates, tend to take credit  for their ideas, and rule with fear What is Citizenship? ­ Commitment to the overall functions of the team and organizational culture in order to  improve performance Emotional Intelligence ­ (EI): Capacity to recognize and appreciate emotional responses in one’s self and others ­ (EQ): managers who have insight into their own emotions and the feelings of others can  inspire a higher quality of work performance o Requires getting substantial feedback from others to increase self­awareness CHAPTER 15: COMMUNICATING AND MOTIVATING OTHERS How Managers achieve great results with others: “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a  leader.” – John Quincy Adams What is Motivation? ­ Incentive or drive to complete a task, function, or idea ­ All our behaviors are motivated by an intrinsic desire to do well What is Communication? ­ Act of transmitting information, thoughts, and processes through various channels Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ­ Physiological: basic items that we need to ensure our survival ­ Safety: need for an environment that is safe, both physically and mentally ­ Affiliation/Belongingness: desire to be accepted by others and to find out place in social  settings ­ Esteem: need to be respected and appreciated by others ­ Self­Actualization: need for personal growth and self­development ERG Theory of Motivation ­ Clayton Alderfer o System that sets out three categories of human needs, movement within the  hierarchy can be up or down o Existence needs­ describe our physiological and safety needs o Relatedness needs­ reflect our desire for good relationships with others o Growth needs­ need for personal fulfillment, self­development, and  accomplishment Two Factor Theory of Motivation ­ Fredrick Herzberg ­ Dual theory, based on job satisfaction and/or job dissatisfaction and the extent to which  attitudes influence outcomes ­ Hygienes­ e.g., working conditions, wages, job security and company policy ­ Motivators­ opportunities for personal growth, such as recognition, achievement, and  advancement What is Oral Communication? ­ Provides verbal discussions, ideas, and processes, either one­on­one or as a group (face­ to­face) ­ Advantages o Helps to build relationships o Accelerates decision making and problem solving o Provides a forum for immediate feedback ­ Disadvantages o Informal nature may lead to vague or reckless statements o Unless recorded, messages may be unreliable, unstable, and incomplete Written Communication ­ Advantages o Greater time may be devoted to message preparation o Message can be archived o Receiver has more time to interpret the message ­ Disadvantages o Time and effort required to prepare an effective statement o Does not permit spontaneous or immediate feedback o Sender does not know whether message has been interpreted as intended What is Channel Richness? ­ Capacity to convey as much information as possible during the communication process Barriers ­ Filtering: message is screened before being passes on to the receiver o May be resolved with simple language and reliance on several communication  channels ­ Emotion: mood affects communication o May be overcome with awareness of one’s feelings and constraining them when  communicating ­ Information overload: large amounts of information can lead to confusion o Prioritize work to avoid simultaneous waves of information ­ Differing perceptions: imposing one’s own reality o Overcome by examining our assumptions and seeking constructive feedback Overcoming Communication Barriers ­ Listening: active effort to understand, learn, and obtain information from others o Give speaker full attention o Avoid distractions o Don’t interrupt o Read nonverbal cues  In the case of global networks, learn to understand different culture and  teach teams to communicate effectively in virtual organizations Communication Networks ­ Grapevine o Informal line of communication where information is passed from one person to  another  ­ Gossip Chain o Several individuals spread information through an organization, which is  sometime false or misleading ­ Cluster chain o Group of people that disseminate information within their group or cluster To become a more effective communicator and motivator a manager must display: ­ Compassion ­ Conscientiousness ­ Forgiveness ­ Gratitude ­ Grit ­ Humility ­ Mindfulness ­ Openness ­ Wisdom Power of Challenging Work ­ Porter­Lawler introduced two types of rewards into expectancy theory o Intrinsic rewards: positive feelings experienced as a result of achieving the task o Extrinsic rewards: concrete rewards (ex. Bonuses, promotions) ­ Goal Setting theory o Motivation will be increased by clear, challenging, specific goals where  employees are fully committed and encourages to give feedback o Goals focus attention and direct efforts to achieve a specific target o Achieving goals and produces a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction Reinforcement Theory ­ Behavioral construct where individuals may be rewarded or punished based on the  consequences of their behavior o Reinforcement schedules  Fixed­interval: a set period of time  Variable interval: implemented after a varying period of time to reward  successful performance  Fixed ratio: where a specific amount of behaviors must be met before  reward is given ­ Positive reinforcement o Reward given to motivate a person or group which is usually stated verbally or  with ‘pats on the back’ and words of encouragement ­ Avoidance learning o Benefits theory, also called negative reinforcement, which postulates that  behavior is strengthened by the removal of negative statements or actions ­ Extinction o Behavioral method that involves withholding praise or a positive reward Reward Systems ­ Theory that provides prizes, incentives for tasks and jobs well done, and special  recognition Types of Reward Systems 1. Merit­based rewards a. Positive reinforcement based on specific accomplishments, with rewards given for achievement of specified measurements 2. Piece­rate incentives a. Awards and prizes given at a specific rate as accomplishments occur, rather than  all at one time 3. Scanlon plan a. System that recognizes and rewards individuals for collaboration, leadership,  education, and training given to another individual or group cohesively 4. Equity Theory a. System that holds the individuals are more motivated if they perceive that they are being treated as fairly as their fellow workers or those in other firms 5. Stock Options a. Company stocks given to employees as additional compensation or incentives,  usually at a discounted price for a limited time 6. Gainsharing a. System that allows employees to share in any cost savings made by the firm


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