Chapter 13 and 14
Chapter 13 and 14 COMM 1500-005
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Shaw on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1500-005 at Clemson University taught by Marianne H. Glaser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication: A Theoretical Foundation Interpersonal Relationships Relationships—an association between at least two people, which may be described in terms of intimacy or kinship. This is a big umbrella term Good relationships – interactions are satisfying to and healthy for all involved. Theories of Interpersonal Communication STAR QUESTION/CONCEPTS Most of us want relationships so we need to be good at communicating these are theories to why we communicate with others and why we have relationships o Uncertainty Reduction Theory o Uncertainty Management Theory o Social Information Processing Theory o Social Penetration Theory o Social Exchange Theory o Interpersonal Needs Theory o Dialectical Theory: Push and Pull Uncertainty Reduction Theory Incertainty reduction theory suggests that when we meet others, we seek to reduce uncertainty about each other o It feels uncomfortable to be uncertain in a situation so we communicate to reduce the uncertainty we have about someone In other words: o New relationships cause uncertainty o Uncertainty is uncomfortable o People communicate to alleviate discomfort The reason we may choose to communicate are: o Anticipation of future contact Will we see them again? o Incentive, value, or reward Is there a reward to talking to them (nice to cable guy he might give you HD for free/discounted) o Deviance Someone is so different (deviates from the norms of life) that you either want to communicate or not depending on how much more you want to know B/c they made you uncomfortable you seek to reduce your uncertainty about them Uncertainty Management Theory This theory takes into account the different ways people respond both psychologically and communicatively to uncertainty Three main features: o The interpretation and experience with uncertainty o The effect of emotion related to uncertainty o The ways communication and emotion are managed when uncertainty exists Sometimes we choose uncertainty b/c it is a better choice o For some uncertainty = hope This was developed by a medical psychologist so think of this as would the uncertainty of not knowing a second opinion offer you some hope about your prognosis or would the elimination of the uncertainty offer you hope? Social Information Processing Theory Suggests that textual electronically mediated relationships grow only to the extent that people gain information about each other and use it to form impressions Two features: o Verbal cues are used to form opinions and impressions of others so without this ability it is harder for relationships to get deeper o Time: it takes longer to get to know someone via textual technology rather than face-to-face interactions Social Penetration Theory A theory suggesting that disclosures in relationships become increasingly intimate as the relationship develops o Breadth of information shared/topics o Depth of information shared/deepness o Increases with intimacy Think of it like an onion and that you chose to disclose info to people/peel back the layers of your onion Social Exchange Theory Why do you form relationships with others? Social exchange theory is based on the assumption that people weigh the costs and benefits associated with entering a relationship and seek out relationships that benefit them, avoiding those that don’t Essentially making a pro/con list Interpersonal Needs Theory This is a theory that provides insight into our motivation to communicate. The theory consists of three needs: Affection The need to feel likeable or loveable. To feel like we belong Inclusion Encompasses our need to feel significant and worthwhile. People need to feel significant Undersocial (don’t want to communicate) vs. oversocial (need to communicate) Social = a balance Situational Control Our motivation for power or influence in our relationship. a balance is good If someone has all the power/influence à not a good relationship Dialectical Theory: Push and Pull Connection-Autonomy o C- you want to be with them and feel connected o A- “me time” o You need to be dependent and independent in a healthy relationship Openness-Closed-ness o O- you want to be open to them, to self-disclose o C- you don’t always want to share everything (for protection of yourself) Novelty-Predictability o N- you want things to be predictable a safe spot o P- however if things become too predictable that can be not so good (it’s good to be surprised) STAR QUESTION: Managing Relational Tensions o 1) Temporal selection: choose one desire and ignore the other for that time being focus on one and not the other o 2) Topical Segmentation: for certain topics we will be more open/disclosed o 3) Neutralization: compromising/finding neutral ground b/t two people’s desires o 4) reframing: reframe/change the perception of the tension associated with changing yourself so that both desires can be satisfied Theories of Interpersonal Communication what motivates us (a recap) Uncertainty Reduction Theory Uncertainty is not comfy à to alleviate we communicate Uncertainty Management Theory Keeping yourself uncertain (we want to manage it) Think of it like in a medical way Social Information Processing Theory Takes more time to get to know people through text communication Social Penetration Theory ONION à certain people are able to penetrate deeper into the true you (self-disclose more) Social Exchange Theory Cost/benefit of the relationship à decide whether we want to move forward Interpersonal Needs Theory We communicate bc we have 3 basic needs: affection, inclusion, control Dialectical Theory: Push and Pull Want and need different and opposing things Self-Disclosure in Relationships Self-disclosure is voluntarily sharing information about ourselves that another person is not likely to know. Feedback – the verbal and physical responses to people and their messages. Makes the relationship closer A healthy relationship is one that involves both parties equally self-disclosing Tit-for-tat test Self-Disclosure Why do we Self-Disclose? Self-presentation An intentional self-disclosure tactic used to reveal certain aspects about ourselves for specific reasons When we want to appeal to others, we put our best foot forward Relationship building Acquaintances, Friends, Close Friends (platonic or romantic) To allow the relationship to grow, we must self- disclose Catharsis Form of communicative release It feels good to unburden ourselves It invites sympathy, care, and concern Telling someone you have a bad day and often you expect some type of response Can you trust them? Is this going to burden them? Things to consider: Too much self disclosure: o Consider how much disclosure and when? à there are people who share way too much, it is probably not super great to do that all the time o There’s a right amount à tit-for-tat test: if you share everything will they share everything? Self-disclosure and privacy: o When in a relationship à it’s your fault it is shared if you don’t disclose to them that you want it to be private; ask in advance if it is okay for them to keep a secret; be equally as thoughtful when they ask you to keep a secret Self-disclosure and culture: o Not all cultures handle self disclose the same; be respectful of their norms Self-disclosure and gender: o Be careful of stereotyping and assuming o -women tend to share more o Men develop relationships through shared activities and dependency Self-disclosure and rhetorical sensitivity: o Be thoughtful how you share and communicate Chapter 14 Interpersonal communication competence Five skills leading to interpersonal competence o The ability to Adapt and know how to communicate in specific situations o Ability to adapt and appropriately communicate in specific interactions o Ability to understand your and the other person’s values, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings Understand and respect others no one is perfect o The ability to self-monitor Realize why you are doing what you are doing and can you change it? o The ability to be fair and ethical Do you have the ability to adapt to each different arena of life? Yes we can do these things but can we do it well?
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