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Week 12 Notes

by: Caroline Crews

Week 12 Notes HY 101

Caroline Crews

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Notes from Week 12.
Western Civ To 1648
Daniel Riches
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
Week 12 Notes Machiavelli and Luther Nicoló Machiavelli, 1469 – 1527  Wrote The Prince in political and personal turmoil  Medici family o Powerful and wealthy banking and merchant family o Ran the show in Venice o Had been in power during the French invasion; goes into exile  He becomes an official in the new republic government  Medici family comes back into power 1512 o Machiavelli is jailed and tortured for his participation in the republic government o He then is under house arrest and restricted from participating in politics st  Il Principe (The Prince) c. 1512; 1 published 1532 o Written for the Medici to prove his worth and advice o Fortuna and virtú  Two main concepts of the book  Fortuna: fortune/fate  No control over the circumstances  Cannot fall back on a certain set of rules  Virtú: virtue/moral  Must be relied on  Indefinable quality of character that allows the individual to assess political situation and make the best decision  Could be trained through education and experience  We judge decision on political success, not if it is ethical o Cicero De Officus  Major influence; did the opposite of Cicero  Left the Humanists surprised  Examples:  Man vs. beasts  Keeping a promise  Good, ethical vs. best result Development before Luther  Invention of the printing press o Johannes Gutenburg c. 1400-1468  Perfected the printing press o Most famous for the Gutenburg bibles o Becomes extremely important for spreading Luther’s ideas  Christian Humanism o Especially present in Northern Europe o To make people better Christians o Wanted to inspire people through eloquence in their work o Tried to get the Bible to the original texts by learning biblical Hebrew and ancient Greek  Grievance Literature o Especially present in the Holy Roman Empire o Multiple level of complaints o The world is out of whack  The Church wasn’t doing the spiritual requirements Martin Luther, 1483-1546  Relatively comfortable family  Father expected Luther to become a lawyer o Sent to University to start his studies; 1505, graduates; in this year, he is caught in a massive thunderstorm, prays for safety in return for becoming a monk and devoting his life to religion o Joins an Augustan monastery  1507, ordained as a priest  1512, professor, teaching theology at Catholic University  Obsession rule-following o Confessed way too much  Had a mental breakdown over the thought that he would never be good enough  95 Theses 1517 o Indulgences  Payment to lessen your time in Purgatory  Saints has an abundance of grace, this excess would flow over into the entire Church  The Church would dispense this excess in exchange for great donations for the Church  The increase in indulgences in the 1500s  The Papacy was renovating St. Peter’s Church; sincere religious belief that this luxury was in honor of G-d o Pope Leo X 1513-1521  Cut a deal with the Arch Bishop so he could hold 2 positions at once and so the Pope could pay for all of the renovation by selling indulgences o A formal Latin debate over indulgences o Published, then translated from Latin to German and mass printed without Luther’s knowledge  The reformation is not about indulgences o There were a spark to inspire Luther to discuss his opinions more openly  Leipzig Disputations 1519 o Public debate between Luther and Johan Eck, 1486-1541  Professor and great debater  Challenges Luther to public debate o Eck spent more time disproving Luther  Calls out the consequences of Luther’s thinking  Led Luther to accept the more radical conclusions of his thinking o Causes Luther to be more of a threat  June 1520, Papal threat  Writing of 1520, in reaction to the Papal threat o Aug., To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation o Oct., On the Babylonian Captivity  Attack of the sacramental system o Nov., On Christian Liberty  Most detailed writing on Luther’s thinking and main thoughts  Luther is excommunicated  Diet of Worms 1521 o Luther is called in front of the emperor to explain his radical thinking and told to recant o When he doesn’t, he is labeled as an imperial outlaw  Popularity o Diet of Worms was the first even that is similar to a media sensation due to the printing press  Information about it spread quickly o 1518-1525, 1/3 of all the German books were Luther’s work o 1534, first complete version of German Bible was mass produced and was translated by Luther


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