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Chapter 9 and 10

by: Elizabeth Rubio

Chapter 9 and 10 GEOL 110

Elizabeth Rubio
Long Beach State

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Hope these help!
Natural Disasters
Ewa Burchard
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
4­13 9.7 Linkages with other Hazards  Short­term  events  – Flooding • Slow­moving  thunderstorms  producing  a lot of rain in a relatively short  time  • Stagnation  of  thunderstorms  – storms  track  over  the same area  – Mass  movements  – Wildfires  • Can  start  from  lightning  strikes • Long­term  changes  in  global  climate  – Drought,  dust/sandstorms,  and  heat  waves  • Tropical  and  extratropical  cyclones 9.8 Natural Service Functions of Severe Weather Contribute  to  health  of  forests  – Wildfires  clear  old  growth – Windstorms  topple  dead  trees • Source  of  water  – Blizzards  and  other  snowstorms,  thunderstorms,  and   tropical  storms  primary  source  for  some   areas • Aesthetic  value – Clouds,  snow,  lightning • Tourism – Tornado  chasing Forecasting and Predicting Weather Hazards Timely  and  accurate  prediction  is  extremely   important  to  spare  human  lives  – Events  still  difficult  to  forecast  – Behavior  is  unpredictable  – Doppler  radar  has  significantly  improved  ability  to  predict   paths  • Detects  clouds,  rain,  ice  particles,  etc.  • Uses  wavelength  of  reflected  waves  to  determine  directions  • Used  to  make  short  term  predictions • Can  detect  a  mesocyclone  within  a   thunderstorm  and  issue   tornado  warnings  up  to  30  minutes  in  advance  Watches  and  warnings  – Watch:  possibility  of  severe  weather  developing  – Warning:  severe  weather  has  been  spotted,  take  action Adjustment to the severe weather Hazard Cannot  prevent  severe  weather,  but  can  take  steps   to  reduce  associated  death  and  damage • Mitigation  – Long­term  actions  to  prevent  or  minimize  death,  injuries,   and  damage  are  considered  mitigation – Different  for  each  weather  hazard  but  some  general   techniques  • Building  new  structures  (Example:  windproofing) • Ensuring  utilities  can  continue  to  function  in  severe  weather  • Warning  systems  • Hazard  insurance  ­Preparedness  and  personal  adjustments  Ch 10 Hurricanes and Extratropical Cyclones Hurricane Sandy •Seven days from formation to landfall –Landfall just south of New York City –Storm had swelled to largest  Atlantic hurricane on record •“Superstorm Sandy” –Great size, atypical path, merged with an arctic cold front –No longer hurricane­force winds upon landfall, but was second most expensive storm to strike the  United States (after Katrina) •Damage in the United States –Triggered intense snowstorms resulting in power outages –Large waves and heavy wind and rain caused flooding and coastal erosion 10.1 Intro to Cyclones •An area or center of low pressure with rotating winds –Counter­clockwise in Northern Hemisphere –Clockwise in Southern Hemisphere •Tropical or extratropical –Based on origin and core temperature •Characterized by intensity –Sustained wind speeds and lowest atmospheric temperature (cont.) •Tropical Cyclones –Form over warm tropical or subtropical ocean water (5°–20° latitude) –Have warm central cores –Tropical depressions, tropical storms, hurricanes –High winds, heavy rain, surges, and tornadoes –Derive energy from warm ocean water and latent heat •Extratropical Cyclones –Form over land or water in temperate regions (30°–70° latitude) –Associated with fronts and cool central cores –Strong windstorms, heavy rains, surges, snowstorms, blizzards –Most do not produce severe weather –Derive energy from temperature contrasts along fronts •Scientific classification and description have roots in regional names •Extratropical cyclone that moves along northward along East Coast U.S. –Hurricanes •Tropical cyclones in Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans –Typhoons •Tropical cyclones in Pacific Ocean west of International Dateline and north of the equator –Cyclones •Tropical cyclones in Indian Ocean Saffir­Simpson Scale classifies hurricanes based on wind speed Naming Cyclones  •Tropical storms and hurricanes given names established by international agreement through World  Meteorological Organization –Named once winds exceed 63 km (39 mi.) per hour –Names assigned sequentially each year from list for each origin –Male/female names alternated –Names are reused every 6 years –Names of big storms are retired (example: Katrina) Tropical Cyclones cont. •Tropical disturbance –Typically 200 to 600 km (120 to 370 mi.) –A organized mass of thunderstorms persisting for > 24 hours –Associated with elongated area of low pressure (trough) –Has a weak rotation due to Coriolis effect Cont. •Tropical Depression –Tropical disturbance wind speeds increase and begins to spin –A low pressure center is formed •Tropical Storm –Winds increase to 63 km (39 mi.) per hour –Storm is given a name –Wind speeds are not at hurricane strength, but rainfall can be intense •Hurricanes –Not all tropical storms develop into hurricanes •Classified when winds reach 119 km (74 mi.) per hour –Environmental conditions •Thick layer of warm ocean water –At least 26 degrees C (~80 degrees F) –Extend to depth of 46 m (~150 ft) •Steep vertical temperature gradient –Atmosphere must cool quickly with increasing altitude •Weak vertical wind shear –Strong winds aloft prevent hurricane development


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