Chapter 9 and 10
Chapter 9 and 10 GEOL 110
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
413 9.7 Linkages with other Hazards Shortterm events – Flooding • Slowmoving thunderstorms producing a lot of rain in a relatively short time • Stagnation of thunderstorms – storms track over the same area – Mass movements – Wildfires • Can start from lightning strikes • Longterm changes in global climate – Drought, dust/sandstorms, and heat waves • Tropical and extratropical cyclones 9.8 Natural Service Functions of Severe Weather Contribute to health of forests – Wildfires clear old growth – Windstorms topple dead trees • Source of water – Blizzards and other snowstorms, thunderstorms, and tropical storms primary source for some areas • Aesthetic value – Clouds, snow, lightning • Tourism – Tornado chasing Forecasting and Predicting Weather Hazards Timely and accurate prediction is extremely important to spare human lives – Events still difficult to forecast – Behavior is unpredictable – Doppler radar has significantly improved ability to predict paths • Detects clouds, rain, ice particles, etc. • Uses wavelength of reflected waves to determine directions • Used to make short term predictions • Can detect a mesocyclone within a thunderstorm and issue tornado warnings up to 30 minutes in advance Watches and warnings – Watch: possibility of severe weather developing – Warning: severe weather has been spotted, take action Adjustment to the severe weather Hazard Cannot prevent severe weather, but can take steps to reduce associated death and damage • Mitigation – Longterm actions to prevent or minimize death, injuries, and damage are considered mitigation – Different for each weather hazard but some general techniques • Building new structures (Example: windproofing) • Ensuring utilities can continue to function in severe weather • Warning systems • Hazard insurance Preparedness and personal adjustments Ch 10 Hurricanes and Extratropical Cyclones Hurricane Sandy •Seven days from formation to landfall –Landfall just south of New York City –Storm had swelled to largest Atlantic hurricane on record •“Superstorm Sandy” –Great size, atypical path, merged with an arctic cold front –No longer hurricaneforce winds upon landfall, but was second most expensive storm to strike the United States (after Katrina) •Damage in the United States –Triggered intense snowstorms resulting in power outages –Large waves and heavy wind and rain caused flooding and coastal erosion 10.1 Intro to Cyclones •An area or center of low pressure with rotating winds –Counterclockwise in Northern Hemisphere –Clockwise in Southern Hemisphere •Tropical or extratropical –Based on origin and core temperature •Characterized by intensity –Sustained wind speeds and lowest atmospheric temperature (cont.) •Tropical Cyclones –Form over warm tropical or subtropical ocean water (5°–20° latitude) –Have warm central cores –Tropical depressions, tropical storms, hurricanes –High winds, heavy rain, surges, and tornadoes –Derive energy from warm ocean water and latent heat •Extratropical Cyclones –Form over land or water in temperate regions (30°–70° latitude) –Associated with fronts and cool central cores –Strong windstorms, heavy rains, surges, snowstorms, blizzards –Most do not produce severe weather –Derive energy from temperature contrasts along fronts •Scientific classification and description have roots in regional names •Extratropical cyclone that moves along northward along East Coast U.S. –Hurricanes •Tropical cyclones in Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans –Typhoons •Tropical cyclones in Pacific Ocean west of International Dateline and north of the equator –Cyclones •Tropical cyclones in Indian Ocean SaffirSimpson Scale classifies hurricanes based on wind speed Naming Cyclones •Tropical storms and hurricanes given names established by international agreement through World Meteorological Organization –Named once winds exceed 63 km (39 mi.) per hour –Names assigned sequentially each year from list for each origin –Male/female names alternated –Names are reused every 6 years –Names of big storms are retired (example: Katrina) Tropical Cyclones cont. •Tropical disturbance –Typically 200 to 600 km (120 to 370 mi.) –A organized mass of thunderstorms persisting for > 24 hours –Associated with elongated area of low pressure (trough) –Has a weak rotation due to Coriolis effect Cont. •Tropical Depression –Tropical disturbance wind speeds increase and begins to spin –A low pressure center is formed •Tropical Storm –Winds increase to 63 km (39 mi.) per hour –Storm is given a name –Wind speeds are not at hurricane strength, but rainfall can be intense •Hurricanes –Not all tropical storms develop into hurricanes •Classified when winds reach 119 km (74 mi.) per hour –Environmental conditions •Thick layer of warm ocean water –At least 26 degrees C (~80 degrees F) –Extend to depth of 46 m (~150 ft) •Steep vertical temperature gradient –Atmosphere must cool quickly with increasing altitude •Weak vertical wind shear –Strong winds aloft prevent hurricane development
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