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Ecology 4/5-4/7/16

by: Savannah Peat

Ecology 4/5-4/7/16 ECOL1000

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Business > ECOL1000 > Ecology 4 5 4 7 16
Savannah Peat

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About this Document

These are notes for the Tuesday Thursday class from April 5th an 7th.
Environmental Issues
Dr. J Vaun McArthur
Class Notes
Ecology, Environmental Issues, Science
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Peat on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. J Vaun McArthur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
4/5/16  Energy continued…. Geothermal  No co2  5 cents per hour  high power  high reliability  low impact  Video: waves working with buoy in New York for energy Ocean Energy  sources: tides, waves, temperature differences  tides: o turbines turn as tide comes and goes o driven by moon  wave power: o uses kinetic energy of wave      Ocean Thermal Conversion (OTEC) Hydropower  Advantages: o Fuel and pollution free o Somewhat cheap o Provides flood control and water storage o Constant electricity  Disadvantages: o Loss of land o Ecosystem disruption o Initial cost  Wave action: o No co2 o 40 cents per hour o medium power o high reliability  o low impact     renewable sources are technology driven Coal  environmental impacts  mining destroys habitats: Ex: mountaintop removal  mine tailings are acidic  exhaust from coal fires  numerous toxins Ex: mercury Form of Hydrocarbons  crude oil (liquid)  natural gas (gas)  coal (solid), diamonds and graphite Formation of oil/hydrocarbons  solar energy stored  marine organic matter sinks  anaerobic conditions­ accumulation  sediments buried in organic matter with pressure and heat Production  gas dissolved in oil  oil and gas under great pressure  price for gasoline is not as affected or impacted as crude oil is Where is gas?  Middle east: 49% of proven resources  U.S­ 2.2%  Oil peak: guesses of when vary o Colin Campbell: 2006­2010 o Francis Harper: 2010­2020 o Etc…. History of Oil  Coal: 1800’s  1859, PA, first well  crude oil was dominant and U.S WAS self­sufficient in production  Hubbert Curve­ predicted difficulty of getting oil in 1950’s Continental U.S peak  1965­1970  began to decline after  demand became beyond supply 1970’s  OPEC­ trade of oil with other countries  U.S became dependent; production became restrained to increase in price  1973: Arab­Israeli War caused OPEC to make embargo 5% and banned exports to  U.S  caused construction of Trans­Alaskan Pipeline Oil Companies  multi­national oil companies (Shell, Exxon)  they can artificially raise prices when supply is low  2001: U.S has lowest efficiency since 1980 Price of Gas  low taxes in U.S  subsidies from U.S gov  price to protect oil has increased Peak Significance  costs of drilling, easiest extracted first  we came up with Hybrid cars  world demand for cars increasing Oil Sand  in Canada  174 billion barrels from oil sand  to get it you have to: o strip mine: two tons, 1 barrel of oil o hauled by heated dump trucks; sand washed by hot water to remove bitumen o bitumen cooked at 900 degrees, sand is dumped in ponds  THESE ARE LARGE ENERGY INPUTS  Less than 20% of disturbed land has been revitalized  Oil shale is impractical BOTTOM LINE: SHIFT TO OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY TO SAVE OIL RESERVES Garbage and Plastic Great Pacific Garbage Patch 3.5 million tons of garbage sun and salt doesn’t entirely degrade plastics increase in ocean it is entering food webs, microdebris o effects uncertain ocean birds ingest plastic and starve 4/7/16 Pesticides  Video: Rachel Carson; wrote Silent Spring  Had master’s marine biologist DDT  Pesticide that harms birds and other things  In low concentrations, DDT is not toxic  In higher concentrations, it is  Bioaccumulation­ DDT is absorbed, retained and concentrated in fats and oils  DDT was banned for sale in 1972; manufacturing was not  Video: Moyers, farm workers put at health risk by DDT  Environmental disaster o Lax regulations x no press x poor health care  DDT also causes cancer More on pesticides  Agro­chemicals (pounds on U.S soil) o 1 billion pesticides a year  o 75 billion herbicides a year o 50 billion fungicides a year  first half of 20  century, the boll weevil killed half of crops o this led to pesticides to kill them o natural selection favored survival of pesticide resistant boll weevil  only 1% of U.S agricultural land is cotton but 50% of all pesticides are used in GA  pesticide manufacturing provides jobs Arsenic  released as a result of pesticides  allowable arsenic levels are higher for U.S than any other industrialized nations  in 2000, restrictions were disallowed for water by Bush  republican controlled house tried to do away with higher levels, did not override veto  led to a lot of endangered areas with poisoned drinking water Solutions  UGA/ Tifton Experimental Station o Reduced pesticide by 75%  o Increased crop yield o Reduced cost by 90%  To know if there is a long term effect, answer: Where is your water coming from? o City, probably food o On site well, bad


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