Ecology 4/5-4/7/16 ECOL1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Peat on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. J Vaun McArthur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
4/5/16 Energy continued…. Geothermal No co2 5 cents per hour high power high reliability low impact Video: waves working with buoy in New York for energy Ocean Energy sources: tides, waves, temperature differences tides: o turbines turn as tide comes and goes o driven by moon wave power: o uses kinetic energy of wave Ocean Thermal Conversion (OTEC) Hydropower Advantages: o Fuel and pollution free o Somewhat cheap o Provides flood control and water storage o Constant electricity Disadvantages: o Loss of land o Ecosystem disruption o Initial cost Wave action: o No co2 o 40 cents per hour o medium power o high reliability o low impact renewable sources are technology driven Coal environmental impacts mining destroys habitats: Ex: mountaintop removal mine tailings are acidic exhaust from coal fires numerous toxins Ex: mercury Form of Hydrocarbons crude oil (liquid) natural gas (gas) coal (solid), diamonds and graphite Formation of oil/hydrocarbons solar energy stored marine organic matter sinks anaerobic conditions accumulation sediments buried in organic matter with pressure and heat Production gas dissolved in oil oil and gas under great pressure price for gasoline is not as affected or impacted as crude oil is Where is gas? Middle east: 49% of proven resources U.S 2.2% Oil peak: guesses of when vary o Colin Campbell: 20062010 o Francis Harper: 20102020 o Etc…. History of Oil Coal: 1800’s 1859, PA, first well crude oil was dominant and U.S WAS selfsufficient in production Hubbert Curve predicted difficulty of getting oil in 1950’s Continental U.S peak 19651970 began to decline after demand became beyond supply 1970’s OPEC trade of oil with other countries U.S became dependent; production became restrained to increase in price 1973: ArabIsraeli War caused OPEC to make embargo 5% and banned exports to U.S caused construction of TransAlaskan Pipeline Oil Companies multinational oil companies (Shell, Exxon) they can artificially raise prices when supply is low 2001: U.S has lowest efficiency since 1980 Price of Gas low taxes in U.S subsidies from U.S gov price to protect oil has increased Peak Significance costs of drilling, easiest extracted first we came up with Hybrid cars world demand for cars increasing Oil Sand in Canada 174 billion barrels from oil sand to get it you have to: o strip mine: two tons, 1 barrel of oil o hauled by heated dump trucks; sand washed by hot water to remove bitumen o bitumen cooked at 900 degrees, sand is dumped in ponds THESE ARE LARGE ENERGY INPUTS Less than 20% of disturbed land has been revitalized Oil shale is impractical BOTTOM LINE: SHIFT TO OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY TO SAVE OIL RESERVES Garbage and Plastic Great Pacific Garbage Patch 3.5 million tons of garbage sun and salt doesn’t entirely degrade plastics increase in ocean it is entering food webs, microdebris o effects uncertain ocean birds ingest plastic and starve 4/7/16 Pesticides Video: Rachel Carson; wrote Silent Spring Had master’s marine biologist DDT Pesticide that harms birds and other things In low concentrations, DDT is not toxic In higher concentrations, it is Bioaccumulation DDT is absorbed, retained and concentrated in fats and oils DDT was banned for sale in 1972; manufacturing was not Video: Moyers, farm workers put at health risk by DDT Environmental disaster o Lax regulations x no press x poor health care DDT also causes cancer More on pesticides Agrochemicals (pounds on U.S soil) o 1 billion pesticides a year o 75 billion herbicides a year o 50 billion fungicides a year first half of 20 century, the boll weevil killed half of crops o this led to pesticides to kill them o natural selection favored survival of pesticide resistant boll weevil only 1% of U.S agricultural land is cotton but 50% of all pesticides are used in GA pesticide manufacturing provides jobs Arsenic released as a result of pesticides allowable arsenic levels are higher for U.S than any other industrialized nations in 2000, restrictions were disallowed for water by Bush republican controlled house tried to do away with higher levels, did not override veto led to a lot of endangered areas with poisoned drinking water Solutions UGA/ Tifton Experimental Station o Reduced pesticide by 75% o Increased crop yield o Reduced cost by 90% To know if there is a long term effect, answer: Where is your water coming from? o City, probably food o On site well, bad
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