Victimology Chapter 12 Study Notes
Victimology Chapter 12 Study Notes CCJ 3666
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 3666 at Florida State University taught by Dr. William Doerner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Victimology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 12 Study Notes Crime and the Elderly 1. How have changes in life expectancy affected the demographic composition of the United States population? The number of elderly still living has increased, and changes in nutrition, healthier lifestyles, the availability of medical resources, and advances in medical knowledge have increased the life expectancies. 2. Use Figure 12–1 to explain what aging trends the United States population has seen and what trends are anticipated. 20% of the American population will be 65 or older by the year 2030. 3. Take Table 12–2 and list four characteristics of older Americans. • Older women outnumber older men at 23.4 million older women to 17.9 million older men • Over half of older women age 75+ live alone • 85+ population is projected to increase from 5.7 million in 2011 and 14.1 million in 2040 • Over one in every eight or 13% of the population is an older American. 4. What role do older Americans play in political action? • Make up the greatest number of voters What are 'Silver Haired Legislatures"? What do they do? • Silver haired legislatures consist of older persons over 60 years old. • Convene periodic meetings to discuss legislative remedies to issues confronting the elderly. • Meet in the state capital chambers, hold a variety of committee hearings, debate new proposals and eventually pass bills aimed at resolving these matters. 5. What is a “gerontologist?” People who study the aging process 6. Explain who the elderly are. Early old age: 64-74, advanced old age: 75+ 7. Look at Table 12–3 and determine whether the elderly are overrepresented or underrepresented in victimization statistics? Underrepresented 8.What are 'Silver Haired Legislatures"? What do they do? • Silver haired legislatures consist of older persons over 60 years old. • Convene periodic meetings to discuss legislative remedies to issues confronting the elderly. • Meet in the state capital chambers, hold a variety of committee hearings, debate new proposals and eventually pass bills aimed at resolving these matters. 9. Look at Figure 12–3 of your textbook. Compared to other age groups, what are the actual odds of property victimization for the elderly? It decreases with age, there is an 8.3% victimization rate. 10. Name the two components that make up fear of crime. The actual odds of being victimized, and the subjective or perceived risk of victimization. 11. What impression does Figure 12–4 and Figure 12–5 generate? Since there is a clear negative linear relationship between victimization and age, the impression was that the level of crime had actually increased. 12. What is the “fear-crime paradox?” States there should be a lower level of fear of crime because the actual level of crime is low. When the level of fear of crime is incongruent with the supposed crime, it becomes necessary to find alternative explanations for that fear. 13. What difficulties surround the measurement of fear? Measures of fear can vary by the definition used by different researchers. Fear can be elicited by different events or situations. The elderly may respond to being fearful in situations that don't elicit the same response from younger participants. 14. What does Figure 12–6 show? Whether people were worried or not about a variety of different victimization episodes. Showed... • Two out of every three people were apprehensive about identity theft • Less than half were concerned about their home being burglarized • A third expressed uneasiness about getting mugged, their child's safety at school, and acts of terrorism • One of every five respondents fretted about being sexually assaulted murdered or attacked while driving. 15. Explain what “risk” means. Typically refers to the chances of becoming a victim of crime 16. List four risk factors to which the elderly are exposed. Possible risk factors include economic resources, where they live, whether they live alone, and their diminished physical abilities. 17. Explain what “vulnerability” means. Susceptibility to crime and the harm that accompanies victimization. The ease of being victimized and the impact the crime has on the victim The assumption with vulnerability is that people who would suffer the greatest loss will be the most fearful. For the elderly, vulnerability is a key concern 18. Give three vulnerability factors, and explain how they affect fear of crime among the elderly. 1. Physical attributes: physical strength and increasing health problems contribute much to a sense of vulnerability. -Almost all elderly have a chronic health condition. Most common ailments (hypertension, arthritis, heart disease, and cancer) -Cannot ward off physical attacks and are more prone to physical injury. Not unusual for crime related injuries to aggravate pre existing health problems. 2. Financial concerns: reduced incomes, much money is coming from fixed sources such as social security, pension funds, and investments. 3. Social connections: social isolation can compound the effects of victimization. -Elderly who suffer physical injury will need assistance with normal activities. Social support is important for placing the event in placing the event in perspective. 19. What is “vicarious victimization?” The phenomenon of sustained interest in crime against the elderly that is a result of the influence of mass media. People who have had no actual victimization experiences themselves become aware of those who have been victimized, and begin to think "what if that happened to me". 20. How does vicarious victimization relate to fear of crime? Indirect attribution heightens one's fearfulness even though the actual odds of victimization may be remote. 21. Compare and contrast elderly abuse and elderly neglect. Elderly Abuse - Commission of an act. Elderly Neglect - Omission of a caretaker function. 22. Explain the various forms of elderly abuse and elderly neglect contained in Table 12–4 of your textbook. 1. Physical Abuse 2. Emotional Abuse 3. Sexual Abuse 4. Exploitation 5. Neglect 6. Abandonment 23.What is poly-victimization? Elderly persons who experience one type of abuse are also likely to be victims of multiple forms of maltreatment. 24. Select two recommendations from Table 12–6 of your textbook and explain what they intend to accomplish. 1. Clarify the definition of abuse and otherwise ensure that states apply that definition consistently and appropriately. 2. Shorten the state survey agencies' time frames for determining whether to include finding of abuse in nurse aide registry files. 25. What four factors contribute to institutional maltreatment? 1. Exogenous Factors- reflects the influence of the larger community on institutional operations. 2. Nursing Home Environment 3. Staff Characteristics- Younger staff members with less education tend to show less concern for the elderly. 4. Patient Characteristics- The older and sicker the patient, the more difficult it is for employees of nursing homes to care for them. 26. What kind of legislative responses has institutional maltreatment triggered? The 1987 Nursing Home Reform Act- outlines various forms of prohibited activity, including abuse, neglect, and the unwarranted use of restraints. GAO in 2002 made suggestions for improving the reporting and investigation of abuse in residential facilities as a first step to addressing the problem. 27. Use Table 12–8 of your textbook and explain three rights of nursing home residents. 1. Right to civil and religious liberties 2. Private and uncensored communication 3. Visitation by any individual 28. What are the four pros associated with mandatory elder maltreatment reporting laws? 1. Reporting requirements are restricted primarily to public employees or employees of agencies that would most likely have contact with potential victims, meaning persons not included in these categories have no legal obligation to make a report of suspected abuse. 2. The specificity of who must report suspected abuse varies from state to state. 3. Accepts the 'good faith standard' 4. All privileged communications, with the exception of lawyer-client, are rescinded in cases of elder maltreatment. 29.What is "ageism"? Stereotyping all older individuals as being in need of protection and treating them differently because of their age. 30. Outline three problems that exist with mandatory reporting laws pertaining to elder maltreatment? 1. Laws typically deal only with the reporting of abuse and fail to provide resources to follow up on the reports. 2. Critics claim that these laws intrude into the privacy of the individual. 3. Mandatory reporting is seen as reinforcing ageism by focusing on the victim rather than the offender. 31. What is the role of an adult protective services agency (APS)? The primary task revolves around investigations of abuse and neglect, but APS offices may also be responsible for such disparate activities as licensing nursing homes, funding research, and training social service workers.
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