PSY 320 - Ch 15 - Cannabis
PSY 320 - Ch 15 - Cannabis PSY 320
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 15 Cannabis Marijuana • Classiﬁed separately ◦ Eﬀects are varied & complex: ◦ Seda▯on, pain relief, hallucina▯ons (in large doses) • Eﬀects suﬃciently diﬀerent from eﬀects of depressants, narco▯cs, hallucinogens • Cannabis - the genus of plant known as marijuana Botany of Cannabis • The plant • Marijuana prepared from leaves • THC/tetrahydrocannabinoil - Primary psychoac▯ve agent ◦ One of 483 compounds found in the plant ◦ Including 84 cannabinoids • Cannabis sa▯va ◦ Dioecious annual w/ male & female ﬂowers ◦ Dis▯nc▯ve compound leaf w/ 7 leaﬂets ◦ Psychoac▯ve proper▯es concentrated in resin produced by glandular trichomes ◦ Max amount of resin in female plants • Especially unfer▯lized female ﬂowers Potencies • THC - delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoil; the most ac▯ve chemical in marijuana • Concentra▯on of THC varies greatly w/ variety, sex, climate, growth condi▯ons ◦ Sinsemilla varie▯es have highest THC levels ◦ Varie▯es cul▯vated for ﬁber (hemp) have lowest THC levels • Potent varie▯es • Sensimilla Hybrids result from crossing Cannabis sa▯va & Cannabis indica • Sinsemilla - Cannabis ﬂower "without seeds" • A method of growing more potent marijuana ◦ Consists of dried ﬂowering tops of plants w/ pis▯llate ﬂowers (female plants) ◦ Male plants removed from the ﬁelds before the female plants are pollinated ◦ Fer▯lized seeds concentrate more energy into producing ﬂowers ◦ Unfer▯lized plants (female) produce more THC • Average THC content of U.S. sinsemilla samples is 7-15% ◦ Recently some strains w/ higher potencies have been reported • Colorado reports 18% average History • Earliest recorded use ~4,000-5,000 years ago ◦ Chinese pharmacy book (2737 BC) ◦ Called cannabis the "Liberator of Sin" • Social use spread to Muslim world & North Africa by AD 1000 ◦ "Hashishiyya" religious cult carried out poli▯cal murders rewarded w/ hashish ◦ Story of cult spread in works by Marco Polo & Boccaccio 1299 - 1350s) • Late 1800s Medical vial ◦ Cannabis indica ﬂuid extract produced by the American Druggests Syndicate r e y aB r o f r o t ▯epm o C PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Tincture of cannabinoids combined w/ alcohol US History • Early 1900s li▯le public interest or use ◦ Not originally a recrea▯onal substance • 1926 series of newspaper ar▯cles linked MJ & crime ◦ Targe▯ng speciﬁc groups of ppl (Mexican immigrants, black jazz musicians) • Most early regula▯on eﬀorts: ◦ Based on concerns about use ◦ Not based on direct evidence linking MJ w/ crime or violence • Word "marijuana" not commonly used un▯l 1930s ◦ Prior referred to as cannabis or hemp • 1935 36 states had laws regula▯ng use/sale/possession of marijuana • Following end of Prohibi▯on: • 1936 gvt released docudrama "Reefer Madness" ◦ Bureau of Narco▯cs head Harry Anslinger ◦ Propaganda campaign to raise awareness of "dangers" linked to rape, murder, crime, etc. • "Pyramid of Prejudice" ◦ MJ use associated w/ lower-class groups & recent immigrants ◦ Regular reference made in popular literature to murdering cult of assassins as sugges▯ve of drug characteris▯cs ◦ Shaky factual ground of stories ◦ Nylon business fought hemp produc▯on • Medical use declined before tax act ◦ **slide 50 • 1937 Marijuana Tax Act: ◦ Followed regula▯on-by-taxa▯on theme of 1914 Harrison Act ◦ Taxed growers, purchasers, & users • Physicians taxed ~ $100 per prescrip▯on (very expensive) un▯l 1969 ◦ Didn't make MJ illegal ◦ Made it virtually impossible to obtain • 1950s & 60s ◦ Li▯le scien▯ﬁc research done on cannabis ◦ Use con▯nued to increase in the 60s - 80s ◦ Common symbol of youthful rejec▯on of authority/adult values ◦ Iden▯ﬁca▯on w/ a new era of personal freedom • 1969 Supreme Court declared MJ Tax Act uncons▯tu▯onal • 1970 changed by Substance Control Act ◦ MJ cost increased signiﬁcantly ◦ Reports published that MJ has less serious eﬀects than commonly believed • 1970 Congress passed Comprehensive Drug Abuse Preven▯on & Control Act ◦ Categorized MJ separately from other drugs ◦ Eliminated mandatory federal sentences for possession of small amounts ◦ Federally criminized MJ ◦ Use peaked in popularity • 1985 Dronabinol (Marinol) ◦ Synthe▯c THC ◦ Classiﬁed as Schedule 2 drug ◦ Approved by gvt for trea▯ng nausea/vomi▯ng during cancer chemotherapy • Marijuana remains a Schedule 1 drug ◦ "High abuse poten▯al & no medical use" • 1988 DEA turned down Judge Francis Yung's sugges▯on to reclassify as a prescrip▯ve drug (Schedule 2) PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • 2001 US Supreme Court ruled 8-0 against medicinal MJ under federal law • Marijuana previously around 3% potent around Woodstock era • Potency greatly increased to present ▯mes Currently • 4/6/16 • DEA will decide whether to change classiﬁca▯on of MJ in July • Gvt currently holds a monopoly on MJ produc▯on for research purposes ◦ U Mississippi ◦ Researchers can only obtain MJ by purchasing product from NIDA (Na▯onal Ins▯tute of Drug Abuse) ◦ Site grows 3% potent MJ • Btwn 2010 - 2015 gvt only provides MJ for an average of 9 research studies per year • Classiﬁca▯on as Schedule 2 will allow for major advances in research • States need a 2/3rds majority (~30 states) in favor for a federal change to make MJ na▯onally legal • Reciprocity laws for already legal states like Oregon & Washington being worked out • MJ the fastest growing industry in the US ◦ $1.5 billion - value of legal MJ market in 2014 ◦ $2.7 billion - projected value of 2015 ◦ $11 billion - projected value of 2019 Cannabis Resin • Primary psychoac▯ve agent: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoil (THC) • THC concentrated in the resin, mostly found in ﬂowering tops s e v a e l n i s s◦ e L ◦ Li▯le in ﬁbrous stalks PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Psychoac▯ve potency of Cannabis prepara▯ons depends on amt of resin present Hashish • Hashish - Concentrated resin from the cannabis plant • Consists of pure resin removed from the surface of leaves & stems • May be less pure depending on how carefully the resin was separated • Primarily available in Middle East & Europe, not common in US • Average THC content ranges 15-40% • Current average about 20% Chemistry of cannabinoids is complex: • 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC - major ac▯ve metabolite • Cannabigerols (CBG) • Cannabichromenes (CBC) • Cannabidiols (CBDS) - an▯convulsant & seda▯ng • Tetrahydocannabinoids (THC) - euphoria -◦9 Δ THC ◦ Isolated & synthesized in 1964 by Israeli pharmacologist ◦ Most pharmacologically ac▯ve cannabinoid • Cannabinol (CBN) & cannabinodiol (CBDL) • Other cannabinoids (such as cannabicyclol (CBL)) cannabielsoin (CBE) & cannabitriol (CBT) • *Major diﬀerences in chemistry determined by extent to which they're psychologically ac▯ve • 3 classes of cannabinoids not known to be psychologically ac▯ve: G◦B C C◦B C : D◦B C • Probably most abundant cannabinoid contribu▯ng up to 40% of resin • May have an▯-anxiety eﬀects & lessen THC eﬀects • Plant w/ greater percentage of CBD may reduce potency • Psychologically ac▯ve to varying degrees: ◦ THC: • When exposed to air, oxidizes & forms CBN : N◦B C • Only very weakly psychoac▯ve • Interacts w/ THC to reduce eﬀects • Marijuana le▯ to sit out oxidizes & becomes less psychoac▯ve, produces CBN LD◦ B C Marijuana Modes of Absorp▯on • Most common method is smoking ◦ Loosely rolled cigare▯e (joint) or thru pipe (bowl) or water pipe (bong) ◦ Heat vaporizes THC & readily passes thru lungs into the blood ◦ W/in seconds of inhala▯on, THC passes thru BBB & enters the brain ◦ Peak plasma levels reached w/in minutes • THC absorbed rapidly by blood & travels to brain/rest of body • W/in 30-45 min, most THC is gone from the brain • Peak psychological/cardiovascular eﬀects occur together w/in 5-10 min • Vaporizer ◦ Causes ac▯ve ingredients to evaporate into a gas w/o burning the plant material ◦ Lower propor▯on of toxic chemicals released than by smoking ◦ Method produces diﬀerent eﬀects than smoking PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Due to ﬂash points of diﬀ cannabinoids that would normally be present in smoke but not in vapor ◦ Diﬀ cannabinoids are released @ diﬀ temperatures • Much more rapid absorp▯on thru smoking than thru ea▯ng ◦ Can be cooked in foods or brewed as tea ◦ Via oral inges▯on absorp▯on is slower • In the liver transforms into 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC ▪ Less THC reaches the brain ◦ PPL reached btwn 1 - 4 hrs • About 90 min following inges▯on Pharmacology • Cannabinoid - chemicals unique to the plant • Over 480 natural components found w/in the cannabis sa▯va plant besides cannabinoids ◦ 66 classiﬁed as cannabinoids ◦ Diﬃcult to produce synthe▯c medica▯ons w/ same eﬀects • THC alone has diﬀ eﬀects than when combined w/ other cannabinoids • Most well-known & researched cannabinoid is Δ9-THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoil) ◦ Substance primarily responsible for the psychoac▯ve eﬀects of cannabis • Eﬀects of THC believed to be moderated by inﬂuence of other components of the plant ◦ Most par▯cularly the cannabinoids • Metabolites ◦ Have diﬀ half-lives ◦ A▯er 1 week, 25-30% of THC & metabolites might remain in the body ◦ 2-3 weeks may be required to completely eliminate a large dose of THC & metabolites • High lipid solubility of THC & metabolites ◦ Selec▯vely taken up & stored in fa▯y ▯ssue to be released slowly ◦ No easy way to monitor THC & metabolite levels Mechanism of Ac▯on • Anandamide - Endogenous substance isolated from brain ▯ssue w/ marijuana-like eﬀects ◦ From ananda (Sanskrit for "bliss") ◦ May be naturally released into the body from the brain • THC & other cannabinoids bind in 2 receptors: r o t pe c e r 1◦ B C • Primarily found in brain & widespread thru the body • Poten▯al ac▯ons widespread • High density of receptors in speciﬁc brain regions ▪ Basal ganglia (movement coordina▯on) ▪ Cerebellum (ﬁne body movement coordina▯on) ▪ Hippocampus (memory storage) ▪ Cerebral cortex (higher cogni▯ve func▯ons) ▪ Nucleus accumbens (reward system) r o t pe c e r 2◦ B C • Found mainly outside the brain in immune cells ▪ Poten▯al role of cannabinoids in modula▯on of immune system PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Physiological Eﬀects • Cardiovasular Eﬀects: ◦ Increased HR • Peaks w/in 10 min of smoking & returns to baseline a▯er ~90 min ◦ Mixed ﬁndings on blood pressure ◦ Cardiovascular risks of use haven't been shown in young, healthy users • Ppl w/ CV disease should probably avoid smoking/inges▯ng THC due to HR eﬀects • Pulmonary Eﬀects: ◦ Bronchodila▯on following acute exposure to marijuana • Opens up air-ways • Being studied as treatment for asthma • Not as strong eﬀects if not smoked ◦ Heavy MJ smoking over a long period could lead to clinically signiﬁcant impairment of pulmonary func▯on • Not much research/evidence ﬁndings of emphysema or COPD found in smokers • Tho long-term/frequent smoking may impair lung func▯on: ▪ Cough, precancerous pulmonary lesions • Reddening of eyes • Dryness of mouth & throat • Long-term eﬀects: ◦ Smoking the most harmful method of consump▯on ◦ Vaporiza▯on only 40% as likely to cause respiratory symptoms ◦ Reduce amt of carbon monoxide consumed ◦ Systema▯c reviews of literature found no evidence of a rela▯onship btwn cannabis use & cancer Subjec▯ve Eﬀects • Euphoria, high, mellowness, hunger, s▯mula▯on ◦ Peak eﬀects occur w/in 5-10 min & last about 2 hrs ◦ Oral THC similar eﬀects but diﬀ ▯me course PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Magnitude of eﬀects greater w/ higher THC concentra▯ons • Regular users can dis▯nguish from placebo • Infrequent smokers: ◦ Experience similar but more intense eﬀects compared with experienced smokers due to lower tolerance ◦ At high THC concentra▯ons, may report nega▯ve eﬀects such as mild paranoia and hallucina▯ons • Cogni▯ve Performance: ◦ Acute administra▯on to infrequent users disrupts cogni▯ve performance • Slowed processing • Impaired short-term memory • Impaired inhibitory control • Loss of sustained concentra▯on • Impaired visuospa▯al processing ◦ Acute administra▯on to frequent users: • Causes less drama▯c eﬀects (tolerance) • Slowed cogni▯ve processing consistently seen • Less drama▯c eﬀects driving high than driving drunk ◦ Acute cogni▯ve eﬀects which can be nega▯ve for young ppl ◦ Highly unlikely that MJ causes widespread changes in brain structure *in contrast to alcohol : nwon k nu l l ◦ ▯ S • Extent of posi▯ve or nega▯ve eﬀects depend on ra▯o of THC to CBD/other cannabinoids • Whether high potency MJ alters brain structure/func▯on ▪ Par▯cularly new highly concentrated forms (sha▯er, dabs) • Eﬀects on long-term cogni▯ve func▯oning: ◦ More diﬃcult to predict ◦ Studies have had divergent ﬁndings ◦ Par▯cipants followed from 20s to 50s show some cogni▯ve impairment ◦ Current evidence shows abstaining for over a month reduces some impairment • Food intake: ◦ Signiﬁcantly increases total daily caloric intake ◦ Clinical use of cannabis-based drugs from appe▯te s▯mula▯on ◦ Unclear if average chronic MJ users are overweight • Verbal behavior: ◦ Verbal exchanges decrease ◦ Nonverbal exchanges increase • Reproduc▯ve Eﬀects: nem n i s l e v e l eno r e t s o t s e t de c ud◦ e R ◦ Diminished sperm counts & abnormal sperm • *Studies not replicated since the 70s ◦ Lower birth weight/height in infants of women who are regular MJ users • Also highly related to nutri▯on/food intake of women under inﬂuence • Impossible to dis▯nguish eﬀects since most women also regular users of alcohol/tobacco as well • Immune System Eﬀects ◦ Mixed ﬁndings • Some evidence that MJ use reduces immunity to infec▯on • When animals injected w/ THC levels well above that obtainable by smoking MJ ◦ Mortality data does NOT show rela▯onship btwn marijuana use & overall death rate Medical Uses • Renewed interest in poten▯al medical use PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Lead to a review of older reports • May be eﬀec▯ve as an▯convulsant when preferred medica▯on ineﬀec▯ve • May relieve tension/migraine headaches • An▯eme▯c - reduces nausea & vomi▯ng • Reduces severe nausea caused by certain drugs for cancer ◦ 1985: Oral TCH (dronabinol/Marinol) licensed for sale to cancer pa▯ents w/ nausea from chemotherapy ◦ 1993: Approved to s▯mulate appe▯te in AIDS pa▯ents • 1999 Ins▯tute of Medicine ﬁndings: ◦ MJ rela▯vely safe/eﬀec▯ve for pa▯ents suﬀering chronic condi▯ons • Marijuana Research: ◦ 1994 California approved research of marijuana ◦ Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research at UCSD ◦ Focus on neuropsychiatric eﬀects • Sa▯vex ◦ Cannabinoid medicine for treatment of spas▯city due to mul▯ple sclerosis which is also in development for cancer pain & neuropathic pain of other regions ◦ Now launched in 11 countries (not the US) ◦ Abuse poten▯al: • Studies show humans & animals self-administer drug • MJ cigare▯es w/ higher THC content preferred • Oral THC doesn't have high abuse poten▯al ▪ Likely due to slower onset eﬀects PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Abuse & Dependence • Research suggests abs▯nence syndrome does exist • Not life threatening, but unpleasant • # of individuals seeking treatment for dependence exceeds all other drugs except alcohol • Abuse poten▯al on THC content ◦ Users more likely to prefer/self-administer products w/ higher THC content • Symptoms of withdrawal: ◦ Nega▯ve mood states- anxiety, irritability pe e l s de t pu r s ◦i D ◦ Decreased food intake g n i v a◦r C ◦ Aggressive behavior (in some cases) • Very rare • MJ dependency not recognized by the DSM-5 ◦ Begins about 1 day a▯er last dose ◦ Lasts 4-12 days ◦ ~ 5% of regular users experience these eﬀects • Research study: ◦ Experienced marijuana smokers given repeated opportuni▯es to take oral THC pills or receive $2 • Par▯cipants selected money on more occasions than pills • Par▯cipants selected more drug-containing pills than placebos • Par▯cipants selected more pills during social/recrea▯onal periods than non-social periods ▪ Indicate oral THC's abuse poten▯al is modest at best Toxicity Poten▯ al • Increased HR, possibly risky for someone w/ pre-exis▯ng CVD • No human OD deaths reported • Panic reac▯ons: ◦ Characterized by fear of loss of control & fear that things won't return to normal ◦ More common among less-experienced users ◦ Paranoia • Chronic lung exposure from smoking: ◦ Daily smoking impairs air ﬂow thru lungs ◦ Long-term implica▯ons unclear • MJ smoke contains many but not all chemicals in tobacco smoke ◦ Tar ◦ Carbon monoxide ◦ Hydrogen cyanide ◦ Nitrosamides ene r y po z n◦ e B • Carcinogen found in higher levels in MJ cigare▯es than tobacco cigare▯es • Though frequent users smoke less joints than tobacco users smoke cigare▯es • No direct evidence that MJ smoking causes lung cancer • MJ cigare▯es not ﬁltered • Driving ability: ◦ Mixed ﬁndings ◦ MJ produces signiﬁcant impairment in infrequent smokers ◦ Li▯le evidence from crash reports that drivers using MJ alone are more likely to be involved in an accident • Burning Tobacco vs. Marijuana: PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Each have similar chemical, tho found in varied propor▯ons ◦ Tar higher (almost 2x) in MJ ◦ CO higher in tobacco ◦ Nico▯ne higher in tobacco ◦ Ammonia higher in MJ • *Lower amounts of substances from vaporizers • Amo▯va▯onal Syndrome ◦ Heavy/chronic users show • Diminished mo▯va▯on • Impaired ability to learn • School/family problems ◦ Probably more due to constant intoxica▯on than long-las▯ng changes in brain func▯on ◦ Chicken & egg case of whether users develop diminished mo▯va▯on or had a pre-exis▯ng condi▯on of lacking mo▯va▯on/inhibi▯on that leads them to smoke all day • Psychosis de t r ope r ne eb e v ah s edo s i pe c ▯oh c y◦ s P ◦ May be no causal rela▯onship ◦ May occur in individuals w/ history of psychiatric problems Synthe▯c Cannabis • K2 or "Spice" ◦ O▯en marketed as herbal incense or herbal smoking blends • Designer drugs which supposedly mimic THC ◦ Contain a large/complex variety of synthe▯c cannabinoids ◦ Primarily JWH-018 - synthe▯c cannabinoid that binds to CB1 & CB2 receptors • First synthesized by Dr. John W. Huﬀman ◦ Quoted saying "People who use it are idiots" • Can cause acute psychosis & may trigger chronic psycho▯c disorder among vulnerable individuals w/ family history of mental illness • Can lead to slight tremors to seizure ac▯vi▯es9 CNN Series on Marijuana • Dr. Sanjay Gupta: ◦ Woman's 5-yr-old daughter suﬀered up to 300 seizures a day ◦ Cannabidoil drops under her tongue dropped seizures to once a week
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