Textbook Notes on Chapter 14
Textbook Notes on Chapter 14 1300-03
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 14: Textbook Notes Political Crime Political crime book definition: any illegal or socially harmful act aimed at preserving or changing the existing political and social order -Performed for ideological reasons -Two categories: crime by government and crime against government BY gov: also called state crime or state criminality -Aim to maintain existing order and includes “1. Political repression and human rights violations; 2. Unethical or illegal experimentation; 3. The aiding and abetting of corporate crime” (p.288) -There is also political corruption which violates public trust by strengthening wealth/power/influence of political officials AGAINST gov: aims to CHANGE the existing order -Includes: “1. Terrorism, assassination, etc. 2. Nonviolent civil disobedience and 3. Espionage and treason” Genocide: ultimate act of repression, deliberate killing of a group because of race, religion, ethnicity or nationality -it is a crime against humanity (worst crime) -Holocausts, Armenians, Sudan (2004) -typically connected to totalitarian govs (but democracies also commit it sometimes) State Terrorism: government ruling through terror -Soviet Union and Stalin example -Human rights violations -Police brutality during Civil Rights movement -Federal support for the murder of national political leaders in other nations -Extraordinary Rendition: CIA kidnapped potential terrorists and tortured them (reportedly) COINTELPRO: FBI spying on people/monitoring them to see what they believed in, what they were up to etc. Legal Repression: arresting without actual reason, the arrest is made on suspicion but the reasoning is faulty but they make up reasons to try to see legitimate Unethical Experimentation -Holocaust experiments -Tuskegee College syphilis experiment -Usually doesn’t happen to white or wealthy people -Radiation exposure without knowledge -Prisoners, mentally ill were main subjects State-Corporate Crime: intersection of corporate crime and crime by government (gov and corporations work together to commit illegal/harmful activities) -Challenger Space Shuttle (not actually perfected but pressure from president to launch it? Ignoring the claims the the o-ring was potentially dangerous) Political Corruption: done for personal wealth gains or political influence Personal $ gain -bribes and kickbacks for business favors they give -Teapot Dome Scandal under Warren Harding -secretary of interior Albert Fall took bribes of more than 400,000 for giving gov owned oil fields to private companies Power & Influence -Watergate and Iran-Contra scandals -NixonWatergate -ReaganIran-Contra Crimes AGAINST Government -Called “convictional criminals” -Right or left side of spectrum -Can be violent or nonviolent -Usually in organized groups, but can act alone -Not always good (9/11 and terrorism in general) -The context is important when deciding what is positive/negative -Motivation is very rational: they want reforms or power to be given up Terrorism book definition: “The use of unexpected violence to intimidate or coerce people in the pursuit of political or social objectives” State Terrorism: using police and government agents to repress citizenry with violent tactics Vigilante Terrorism: initiated by private groups against another private group in order to maintain the status quo -hate crime Insurgent Terrorism: trying to cause political change -bombings, shootings, kidnappings, hijacking, targeting public figures and the public, buildings, buses etc. (list from textbook) Transnational Terrorism: done by people from one nation to people/property of a different nation -9/11 -Bombings in Israel Political Assassination: “murder of public figures for political reasons” -only considered if the murder is politically motivated Civil Disobedience: “violation of law for reasons of conscience and is usually nonviolent and public” -ok with being arrested -Civil Rights, Thoreau, King Oedipus, in the Bible, etc. Espionage: spying Treason: “aiding and abetting of a country’s enemy by providing enemy military secrets or other important info that puts the country at risk” -Benedict Arnold Social-psychological explanations focus on emotions that cause people to protest Structural explanations focus on factors like preexisting friendship and organizational ties (more likely to join if they have some associated friends doing it) -or the political opportunity theory: “movements are likely to appear when changes in the national gov promise it will prove receptive or vulnerable to movement changes” Demographics: BY GOV: almost always by white men of middle or upper class status -the targets are those people lacking power (depends on race, ethnicities, and religion) AGAINST: committed by members of various social movements -dependent on the particular movement To reduce Political Crime there needs to be a decrease in the gaps between the powerful and the powerless
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