Chapter 14: Infectious Disease and the Immune System
Chapter 14: Infectious Disease and the Immune System BIOL 1014
Arkansas Tech University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Surani Notetaker on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1014 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Jacqueline Bowan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Sciences in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 14: Infectious Disease and the Immune System 14.2 What Invaders Do We Face? • Various types of microorganisms surround us. • Some of them are prokaryotic (no membrane-bound organelles). • These prokaryotic organisms can help us (digest food) or hurt us (cholera, tuberculosis, cholera). • Other microorganisms are protozoans, single-celled eukaryotic organisms. • Examples include giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and malaria. • Multicellular eukaryotic examples include fungi that cause yeast infections, athlete’s foot, and ringworm. • Viruses and prions are other pathogens, but these are not even alive. • Viruses have to replicate inside their host’s cell. 14.3 How does the Immune System Protect Us? First line of defense: o Stops the pathogens from getting in o Mechanical and chemical barriers are nonspecific barriers – they are not designed to stop one particular type of pathogen. o Skin and mucous membranes are types of nonspecific barriers. Second line of defense: o Stops the pathogens from residing in our bodies. These are nonspecific and fall in three categories: Defensive cells: Macrophages “eat” microbes Defensive proteins: Interferons fight viruses and complement proteins coat bacteria Inflammatory response: the red, warm, and painful swelling Third line of defense: o Two types of specific immune responses: anti-body mediated and cell-mediated. 14.3 How Do We Know The Immune Response Is Two- Fisted? Bruce Glick was studying the function of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) in chickens by removing it and observing what happened. His friend Timothy Chang was studying immune response of chickens and borrowed some of Glick’s chickens. They discovered two components to a immune response, a cell- mediated one and an antibody-mediated one. 14.4 How Can We Harness the Immune System? • Natural immunity: immunity that occurs as a result of having recovered from a previous bout with an infectious disease. • Vaccination: a weakened form of a pathogen that can be injected or taken orally; it is similar enough to the actual pathogen that memory cells produced by the immune response will recognize and disable the real pathogen if a person is exposed later. 14.5 What Can Help If Our Immune System Fails? Antivenom: antibodies given by injection that can disable snake venom. o They can make antibodies that can be isolated. o This is a temporary form of immunity. 14.6 How Can We Prevent the Spread of Infectious Disease? Wellness: disease spreads more easily through a weakened population. Hygiene: practicing good hygiene can prevent the spread of the disease, even during an outbreak. Clean water and sewers: when human waste doesn’t have the chance to seep into drinking water, cholera and other types of infectious diseases disappear.
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