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Human Geography

by: Nick07

Human Geography GEOG 1200

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About this Document

Week 13 notes over the Geography of the World-Economy
Human Geography
Timothy Anderson
Class Notes
human geography




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nick07 on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1200 at Ohio University taught by Timothy Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at Ohio University.


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Date Created: 04/13/16
April 13, 2016 Human Geography Week 13 Notes Section 7 - Geography of the World Economy o The Classifications of economic activities o Factors in industrial location o Economies of the semi periphery and periphery o Economies of the core - The Classifications of Economic Activities o Economists identify five different types of economic activities o This classification will be used to compare:  Primary Sector (Farmers)  Fishing  Hunting  Lumbering  Mining  Agriculture  Secondary Sector (Blue collar, factory workers)  Blue collar industry; manufacturing through processing raw materials into finished products. (also food processing)  Tertiary Sector (Services)  Finances  Business  Professional  Clerical services  Retail and wholesale trade  Quaternary Sector (White collar)  Doctors  Government  Education  Administrative  Health care  Quinary Sector (CEOs)  High level management  Large operations and corps. - Factors in Industrial Location o Costs of production  Geographically fixed costs: costs relatively unaffected by location of the enterprise (capital, interest) (money)  Geographically variable costs: costs that vary spatially. (Labor, land, power, transportation) o Capitals Ideology and Logic  Because the goal of almost all industries is the minimization of costs and the maximization of profits, the location of an industry is most likely to be where the total costs of production are limited  A good example is steel production and industries dependent on steel: (like automobile assembly) o Complexity of the Manufacturing Process  The more interdependent a manufacturing process is, the more its costs of production will rise o Type of Raw Materials Involved in the Manufacturing Process  Raw bulky or heavy materials, perishable or undergo great weight gain or loss in the process have the greatest effect on siting. (Paper mills, fruit and vegetable canning) o Sources of Power  Important when a source of power is immovable or expensive to move  Most aluminum smelters located near large power plants or dams because they require much electric energy. o Costs of Labor  Costs of labor vary at the national and international level  Lower costs of labor have affected the movement of labor  Intensive industries from core to semi-periphery regions since the mid 1970s and resulted in a pronounced international division of labor, especially textiles and the electrical manufacturing industry o The Market for the Product  Market orientation: placing the final process for manufacturing clode to the target consumers. This keeps shipping prices down  Raw material orientation: placing the first process of manufacturing closest to where the raw materials are  So as it is being processed the good moves closer to the consumer target group o Transportation Costs  Water: least expensive method of transportation for heavy and bulky goods. It is easier to float something somewhere than drive it over land somewhere  Rail: cheapest form of land transportation for bulky items. Problem is route is less flexible  Trucking: expensive yet flexible form of land transportation for big and bulky items. Also time efficient  Air: most expensive yet quickest method of transportation - Intensive Subsistence Farming o The subsistence production of a variety of grains and vegetables on small, permanent plots that are farmed intensively year round o Undertaken mainly in wet regions of the subtropics that have very long growing seasons (allows 3 crops a year rotation) o China, India, Southeast Asia (rice is the most important food here and feeds over half of the worlds population) o Middle America (beans and core) o Southwest Asia (wheat and rice) o Central Africa (Millet, sorghums, peanuts) o Involves the production of a large variety of fruits, grains, and vegetables, but at a small scale o Employs relatively low technology tools o Undertaken upon millions of people - Plantation Agriculture o A form of commercial agriculture (periphery and semi-periphery) o The commercial production of tropical fruits, sugar, tea, cocoa o A plantation is a large form on which only one crop is normally grown o Most are owned and managed by a large multinational corporations in the core, but employ local low wage labor o The capital input comes from the core and that is also where the main markets for plantation products are located o The plantation is on English innovation stemming from the colonial era (sugar plantations in the Caribbean using African slave labor) o Today, most plantations are still located in former colonial areas o Most important plantation regions and crops grown there for export to the core o The Caribbean Islands (sugar) o Tropical central Africa (cocoa, coffee, sugar, tropical fruits) o Parts of the southeast and south Asia (sugar, coffee, tea, spices, cotton, valuable hardwoods, rubber)


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