HSC160 Notes Week 14
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 160 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Otiam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
HSC 160 Week 14 Chapter 14 CHAPTER 14 QUIZ 1. The largest population that can be supported indefinitely given the resources available is known as: CARRYING CAPACITY 2. The phenomenon that creates a barrier to protect us from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation rays is: THE OZONE LAYER 3. The air pollutant that originates primarily from moto vehicle emission is: NITROGEN DIOXIDE 4. One possible source of indoor air pollution is a gas present in some carpets and home furnishings call: FORMALDEHYDE 5. Which of the following substances separates into tiny fibers that can become embedded in the lungs? ASBESTOS 6. Some herbicides contain toxic substances called: DIOXINS 7. The term “point source” and “nonpoint source” are used to describe the two general sources of: WATER POLLUTION 8. A DVD you recently purchased came with less packaging than DVD’s once had. This is an example of controlling municipal solid waste via: SOURCE REDUCTION 9. Which gas is considered radioactive and could become cancer causing when it seeps into the home: RADON 10. What is the recommended safe level of rad exposure per year: 0.5 – 5 RADS 1. Overpopulation a. Fertility rate: the average number of births per woman in a specific country or region i. Rates have increased, especially in developing regions of the world b . Factors affecting population growth: i. Changes in fertility & mortality rates ii. Level of education, access to birth control, control over reproductive choices, socioeconomic, mortality rates, chronic/infectious diseases iii. “zero population growth” is when people believe couples should only produce two offspring c . Measuring the impact of people i. Carrying capacity: the largest population that this earth can support ii. Effects of population growth: 1. Impact on other species 2. Impact on food supply 3. Land degradation and contamination of drinking water 4. Energy consumption 2. Air Pollution a. Air pollution: the presences of substances not found in perfectly clean air i. Pollutants: natural events, living creatures, and toxic byproducts ii. 2 types of air pollution: 1 . Naturally occurring a. Particulate matter b. EX: ash from a volcano 2 . Anthropogenic a. Caused by stationary sources & mobile sources b. EX: power plants & vehicles iii. Major contributors: 1. Carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, and nitrogen oxide b. Photochemical Smog i. Smog: a brownish haze produced by the photochemical reaction of sunlight with hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds, and other gases in vehicle exhaust. (ozone pollution) 1. Tends to form in areas that experience temperature inversion (when a cool layer of air is trapped under a layer of warmer air, preventing the air from circulating) c. Air Quality Index i. A measure of how clean or polluted the air is on a given day and if there are any health concerns related to air quality. Focuses on health effects that can happen within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air (AQI) ii. (scale of 0500) The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution d. Acid Deposition and Acid rain i. Acid deposition: the deposition of wet (rain, snow, sleet, etc.) and dry (particles/gases) acidic components that fall to earth in dust or smoke e. Ozone layer depletion i. Major contributors: chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) 1. EX: refrigerants and hair sprays 2. Decompose in ozone and release chlorine atoms that break apart the layers of the ozone 3. Indoor Air Pollution a. Sources of indoor air pollution: i. Environmental tobacco smoke ii. Home heating iii. Asbestos iv. Formaldehyde v. Radon vi. Lead vii. Mold viii. Sick building syndrome b. Asthma: a longterm, chronic inflammatory disorder that causes tiny airways in the lungs to spasm in response to triggers. i. Symptoms: wheezing, difficulty breathing, and coughing 4. Global warning and climate change a. Climate change refers to a shift in typical weather patterns across the world. i. Global warming: a type of climate change when avg. temp. increases ii. Greenhouse gases: key component in climate change iii. Greenhouse effect: the phenomenon in which greenhouse gases (CO2, Nitrous oxide, methane, CFC’s) form a layer in the atmosphere, allowing solar heat to pass through and trapping some of the heat close to the surface, where it warms the planet b . Evidence of climate change i. Global sea levels rising, earth temperature rising, ice sheet shrinking, ocean temperatures rising, drought/flooding c . Reducing the threat of global warning i. Climate change problems are caused by: 1. Energy, transportation, industrial practices, and fossil fuel burning ii. Rise in greenhouse gases is caused by: 1. Deforestation iii. How to reduce climate change: 1. Reduce consumption of fossil fuels 2. Shift to alternative energy sources 3. Use mass transportation iv. Sustainable development: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations v. Carbon foot print: (needs to be reduced) the amount of CO2 emissions you contribute to the atmosphere 5. The Enhanced Green House Effect: a. Solar energy passes through the atmosphere; some is reflected back into space b. Earth’s surface is warmed by the sun and radiates heat back out toward space c. Some heat passes through the atmosphere into space, but most is trapped by greenhouse gases and rereleased toward Earth, further warming it d. Human activities cause and increase in greenhouse gases, trapping more heat and intensifying the warming effect 6. Pollution of Water a. Poor sanitation, consumer waste, agricultural enterprises, residential and commercial development in areas that are historically arid, and public apathy i. Point source pollutants: enter waterway at a specific location 1. EX: sewage treatment plants or industrial facilities ii. Nonpoint source pollutants: (runoff and sedimentation) drain into waterway from soil erosion and sedimentation 1. EX: construction wastes, pesticide and fertilizer runoff, street runoff, acid mine drainages b . Water Contamination i. Sources of groundwater contamination: 1. Point source: can be traced to specific points of discharge from wastewater treatment plants and factories or from combined sewers 2. Air pollution: spreads across the landscape and is other overlooked as a major nonpoint source of pollution a. Nutrients / pesticides can be transported far from their area of origin in air 3. Eroded soil & sediment: can transport considerable amounts of some nutrients such as organic nitrogen and phosphorus, and some pesticides to rivers and streams c . Pollutants that cause the most damage: i. Gasoline/ petroleum products ii. Chemical contaminants iii. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s) 1. High voltage electrical equipment iv. Dioxins 1. Found in herbicides v. Pesticides 1. Chemicals designed to kill insects, rodents, plants, and fungi d . Fracking: i. The method of extracting otherwise inaccessible natural gas from the ground 7. Pollution on Land a Solid waste: i. Recycling programs and other strategies to control waste: 1. Source reduction: (waste prevention) involves altering the design manufacture, or use of products and materials to reduce the amount and toxicity of what gets thrown away 2. Recycling: involves sorting, collecting and processing materials to be reused in the manufacture of new products 3. Erecycling: involves properly disposing of trashed computers, tv’s, cellphones, and other electronic devices 4. Composting: involves collecting organic waste like food scraps, and allowing it to decompose with help of microorganisms (bacteria/fungi) 5. Combustion: involves the use of boilers and industrial furnaces to incinerate waste and use the burning process to generate energy b. Hazardous waste: waste with properties that make it capable of harming human health or environment i. SuperFund: (the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability act) enacted to provide funds for cleaning up what are typically abandoned hazardous waste dump sites ii . Substitutes for hazardous products: 1. Use club soda for stains, use cedar shavings/lavender to remove moths, mix water with vinegar for windows 8. Radiation a. Radiation: the energy that travels in waves or particles i. Nonionizing radiation: 1. The radiation at lower end of spectrum. This radiation moves in relatively long wavelengths and has enough energy to move atoms but not enough to remove electrons or alter molecular structure 2. EX: radio waves, TV signals, microwaves, visible light ii. Ionizing radiation: 1. Caused by the release of particles and electromagnetic rays from atomic nuclei during the normal process of disintegration. 2. The sun is a source of ionizing radiation in the form of high frequency ultraviolet rays 3. Radiation Absorbed Doses (RADs): how exposure is measures a. 100200 rads: nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, anemia, sore throat, hair loss b. 350500 rads: death, no bone marrow production of white blood cells that protect from diseases c. 600700 rads: fatal iii . Nuclear Power Plants: 1. Advantages: a. Efficient way to generate electricity b. Discharge fewer carbon oxides into the air c. Help slow global warming 2. Disadvantages: a. Disposal of nuclear waste is extremely problematic b. A reactor core meltdown could pose serious threats to the immediate environment and to the world in general c. Nuclear meltdown: occurs when the temperature in the core of a nuclear reactor increases enough to melt the nuclear fuel and breach the containment vessel
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