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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Wednesday April 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 271A at University of Washington taught by April Fernandes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Social deviance and social control in Sociology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/13/16
Week 2 Lecture 4 Monday, April 4, 2016 Announcements: Make sure your discussion questions are critical and relate to the readings- demonstrate an understanding of the readings- No "google" questions- questions that are easily searchable online Hirschi: (1969)- Control theory Asks a different question- instead of asking why people engage in deviant behavior, it asks why not? Why do people not engage in crime or delinquency? Why NOT deviate It's human nature to be deviant Bonds and attachments to significant others and institutions (family, law enforcement, religion, education) prevent us from being deviant Rational component- shame and guilt as payment for deviant behavior Why do we not violate those relationships, bonds, and attachments? EX: why would you not steal the professor's wallet? A violation of the relationship with education jeopardizes what is important in getting that education If you don't care about the possibility of getting caught and failing the class, you are much more likely to steal the wallet Stake in conformity- we don’t want to jeopardize our relationships, bonds, and attachments because they matter in terms of our future, goals, and happiness Different from social control Deviance exists when there are weak or non-existent bonds Elements of social bond 1. Attachment- emotional connection 2. Commitment- committed to conventional actions 3. Involvement- If you are involved in conventional actions, there is little to no time left for deviant actions 4. Belief- belief in values and norms If we maintain strong institutions, deviance becomes non-problematic Functionalism and control theory follow a basic assumption that deviance is in human nature Examples of institutions and attachments Joyce Mitchel helped two prisoners escape in New York Bonds with the inmates Not a strong bond with her employer, the prison system Not a strong marriage Amish families Strong religious, social, and structural bonds Strong sense of community Rum springer- most come back to live with their community Gangs Establish their own bonds in an informal institution because they don’t have attachments elsewhere Hirchi argues that gangs and the mafia don’t work with the control theory because their bonds and attachments are deviant ones that lead to deviant behavior rather than preventing deviant behavior Counter- Gangs and the mafia have their own rules and define deviance differently- conflict view Merton (1938)- Anomie theory The legitimate Goal: Anomie- The American dream Home, family, stability, status, income, wealth, community, personal space The legitimate Means: If you work hard enough you will get there Education Job Mortgage Marriage Not everyone has equal opportunity to the resources to achieve the American dream Factors that get in the way: Criminal record Educational access Race (discrimination in incarceration, wage, job selection) Gender identity, sexual orientation Social status, socio-economic status Mental and physical disabilities Religion Family status, wealth, and bonds Language, accent Differential access When these factors block people from their goal they get frustrated and have to innovate- either change the goal or change the means- or both Ways people change the means or goal Goals Means Conformity + + Innovation + - Ritualism - + Retreatism - - Rebellion +- +- Conformity- Going to college for an education and later, a job (legitimate goal, legitimate means) Innovation- Dealing drugs, embezzlement (legitimate goal, illegitimate means) Ritualism- Religious fundamentalism-- Edward Snowden (illegitimate goal, legitimate means) Retreatism- Nudist colonies, hippy colonies- (illegitimate goal, illegitimate means) Rebellion- Revolutions, communist, socialist, black panther (either or, different combinations, rejection as a whole system) Week 2 lecture 5 Wednesday, April 6, 2016 Consensus theories continued Review: Definitions of deviance Becker: Deviance is not the behavior but the reaction; who makes the rules Tittle and Paternoster: Middle class decides Consensus theories Functionalism Durkheim/Davis: Deviance is inevitable and serves positive functions in society Begs the question: how is deviance controlled to acceptable levels? Anomie: Role of structural barriers Control: Why to people NOT deviate? Sampson and Wilson (1995)- inequality Social disorganization theory- Place rather than population Residential mobility- bad for community building High poverty Ethnic heterogeneity EX: The U-District has continuous moving population and not a lot of community building- lack of community which leads to higher crime rates The concentric zone model Battle between culture and structure: Thesis: "…macrosocial patterns of residential inequality give rise to the social isolation and ecological concentration of the truly disadvantaged, which in turn leads to structural barriers and cultural adaptations that undermine social organization and hence the control of crime" (280) Shaw and McKay (1954) Consistent levels of juvenile delinquency in certain neighborhoods Historical determinants Residential segregation- historical and political roots Public housing Red-lining and block busting allowed for segregation Housing covenants where the deed can only be sold to certain people New York Times maps Deindustrialization Loss of low-skilled, living wage employment White flight Agriculture → industrialization → → → deindustrialized ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Farming low skill living wages Technology Service influx into cities ↓ ↓ college educated low end and high end high skill EX: Detroit- a lot of people go into low end service jobs without the living wage and benefits Concentration effects - not a lot of options for low skill people to move Effect on social control mechanisms Sykes and Matza (1957)- Neutralization Deviance as learned behavior Rationalizations Denial of responsibility Denial of injury Denial of the victim Condemnation of the condemners Appeal to higher loyalties Timing Subculture theory- different values and norms Neutralization makes more sense because they are involved in dominant norms and values- they feel shame and guilt in their deviance Examples of techniques of neutralization 1. Denial of responsibility Affluenza- "I didn't know any better" Drug/alcohol influenced me 2. Denial of injury Bullying as just messing around Prostitution Graffiti Stealing small things from big stores 3. Denial of the victim Death penalty Sex offender treatment in prison Stealing of greater value- retribution 4. Condemnation of the condemners Seeing people in power as hypocrites West borough Baptist church Corrupt police 5. Appeal to higher loyalties Abortion clinic bombings Edward Snowden Suicide bombers Gang violence Week 2 Lecture 6 Friday, April 8, 2016 Sutherland and Cressey (1992)- Differential association Ratio of definitions favorable to deviance and definitions unfavorable to deviance Micro (individual) level Affected by structural factors Learned behavior - interactions and associations - skill and opportunity Definitions favorable to deviance She was dressed like it It's not a crime if no one gets hurt Everyone cheats a little on their taxes I drive better when high Don’t be a punk Definitions unfavorable to deviance Marijuana is a gateway drug Just say "no" Don’t drink and drive Turn the other cheek Abstinence only Children shouldn't raise children Where do definitions come from? Parents Social media TV Music Programs D.A.R.E Laws Friends School Factors that influence definitions of deviance Frequency- How often do you hear definitions? Duration- How long have you heard these definitions or held to them? Priority- Who is defining deviance and are they an important figure? Intensity- What is the importance of your relationship to the person defining deviance? Higher ratio of those definitions you relate to that are favorable to deviance, the more likely you are to commit deviance This is a consensus theory because there are clear lines between what is favorable and unfavorable to deviance Consensus theories Functionalism Anomie theory Control theory Neutralization Differential association theory Social disorganization theory Conflict perspective Disagreement over norms and definitions of deviance Focus on power Where does power come from Who makes definitions Who is affected How are violators punished How is deviance controlled Best (2003)- Constructionist Deviance is socially constructed We create meanings and definitions of deviance These definitions and meanings change over time and space EX: marijuana, changing thought and law, gender norms, alcohol, fashion, sexual behavior, divorce, same sex issues, segregation No act or behavior is inherently deviant How did a particular act, behavior, or population come to be defined as deviant Claims and claimsmakers Claims and counter claims as reasons why we see these shifts over time EX: Jaywalking Social construction of space Definition and redefinition Claims and claimsmakers How did both sides express their perspectives? Creation of crime Punishment for drivers "pleasure cars" In the absence of laws The role of technological advancement When no one follows the rules Media news coverage PSA-esque campaigns Informal social control Shame and ridicule- term "jaywalker" EX: Smoking In 1965 42% of the population smoked In 2012 18.1% of the population smoked Smoking bans (2014) 81.5% of the US is under a smoking ban on workplaces, restaurants, bars 49.1% bans smoking in all workplaces, restaurants and bars 28 states with comprehensive bans- no smoking indoors 10 with partial bans- no smoking in workplaces and restaurants First ban enacted in 1975 (Minnesota) First statewide ban in 1995 (California) 1950's- The claimsmakers were doctors, ads, dentists, gov Claims: Second hand smoke is safe Good for health and beauty Aesthetic cool Mariboro man Masculinity- American- freedom Current- The claimsmakers are doctors, ads, dentists, gov Claims: Negative effects on sex Second hand smoke is dangerous Addictive costs a lot Deteriorates health Birth defects Cancer Slow death Makes you ugly Rots teeth What changed and why? Medical evidence- 1965 Surgeon General report on smoking Advances in research techniques- First time people found that smoking causes lung cancer Causes chronic bronchitis Weakening of influence of tobacco companies- Cigarette Ads banned on TV and media Evidence for claimsmakers stronger- Public service ads and programs against smoking Visible effects Discussion section 2 Thursday, April 7, 2016 Durkheim: Consensus- Functionalism Deviance serves a positive function in society- beneficial influence Assumption- society is self-regulating Davis: Applied functionalism to prostitution Positive functions: jobs- men don’t cheat- ugly to ugly- wives don’t have to do what they don’t want to- men get physical release- avoid preying on virtuous women Criticisms of functionalism theory Women in prostitution- If they are here, they aren't in other jobs No children come from it Doesn't talk about how much deviance is appropriate or functional- no quantity Doesn’t discuss who benefits Male power structure- traditional society and family structure is oppressive Power and conflict- ignores whom, power, and how much Positive functions of deviance Reaffirms boundaries of society- what is good and bad Societal evaluation- indication of changing values in society Consensus theories 1. Functionalism- assumption- pro-social - nurture 2. Control- assumption- people are inherently deviant- nature 3. Anomie- assumption- Social structure and deviance is learned- nurture 4. Learning- assumption- learned behavior - nurture Dependent variable ← ← ← Independent variable ↓ Test these and isolate them Variables tend to reflect theories like functional, control, and anomie All theories can work together Understand their assumptions and criticisms EX: Human nature 1. Evil 2. Social 3. Environment All three theories of human nature can work together potentially to form a new theory Control theory - Why NOT deviate Bonds and attachments keep us from deviance Assume deviant is in nature Four components of social bonds 1. Attachment- most important- emotional 2. Commitment- rational 3. Involvement- physical application of attachment- more time spent on conventional activities leaves less time for deviant activities 4. Belief- agreeing- awareness and understanding of the rules and norms Criticisms Assumes bonds can only be in non-deviant people Doesn't take into account gang behavior Anomie theory - Merton- Structural obstacles to access American Dream Needs, desires, and goals of societies Goals and needs change- not everybody ascribes to the same ones and not everyone has the means to the goal Anomie comes from misbalance of societal goals, factors, and obstacles preventing people from their goal Factors and ways to adapt chart Ways people change the means or goal Goals Means Conformity + + Innovation + - Ritualism - + Retreatism - - Rebellion +- +- Conformity- Going to college for an education and later, a job (legitimate goal, legitimate means) Innovation- Dealing drugs, embezzlement (legitimate goal, illegitimate means) Ritualism- Religious fundamentalism-- Edward Snowden (illegitimate goal, legitimate means) Retreatism- Nudist colonies, hippy colonies- (illegitimate goal, illegitimate means) Rebellion- Revolutions, communist, socialist, black panther (either or, different combinations, rejection as a whole system) Criticisms Why some working class go to crime and others do not Not everyone wants the American Dream What about other countries and cultures Societal disorganization theory- Sampson and Wilson- used Shaw and McKay as a starting point Place rather than the population Ecological framework Concentric zone theory- Shaw and McKay What makes higher crime rates- poverty- ethnic heterogeneity- residential mobility- lack of community Deindustrialization Ecological fallacy- EX: all women are voting for Hillary- What about those who aren't EX: City A 60% men suicide 100% Protestant City B 10% men suicide 100% catholic Assumes that Protestants are more likely to commit suicide than Catholics when that may not be true Techniques of neutralization- Sutherland Rationalize deviance in 5 ways We understand the normative system and make excuses of justifications for deviant behavior Differential association- Sutherland was writing a textbook when he came up with this theory Social learning theories Deviance is learned in communication We learn by associating with certain people- hanging around a lot of deviant people, learn deviance by association- bad influence factor Criticism Facebook and social media learning deviance Learn deviance from other places
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