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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 5: The Caribbean Intro: 1. Caribbean was first region in Americas extensively explored, colonized by Europeans 2. Modern regional identity is unclear 3. At crossroads because of isolated proximity 4. Situated between Tropic of Cancer and Equator 5. Greatly altered landscape – Deforestation – Extinction of native plants and animals – Soil erosion 6. Recent preservation of natural areas Island & Rimland Landscapes 1. Caribbean Sea links the region – Great biodiversity – Lacks commercial fishing 2. Most island on Caribbean plate – Fairly inactive 3. Greater Antilles – Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico – Large mountains – Best farmland in region 4. Lesser Antilles – Arc from Virgin Island to Trinidad 5. Rimland States – Belize and the Guianas Caribbean Climate & Climate Change 1. Region received considerable rainfall 2. Temperatures consistently above 70 degree 3. Precipitation defines seasonality 4. Hurricanes – Season runs June to November, peaks in August and September – Average 10.1 named storms, 5.9 named hurricanes, and 2.5 major hurricanes 5. Climate change – Vulnerable to sea-level rise – Impact on biodiversity – Role of CARICOM and REDD program Environment Issues 1. Forests widespread prior to European colonization 2. Deforestation tried to creation of plantations 3. Some forests have recovered 4. Biodiversity less threatened in Rimland 5. Public awareness of deforestation and loss of biodiversity 6. Territorial waters now being protected Population & Settlement Intro: 1. Very dense and highly urbanized population 2. Variation among three subregions – Greater Antilles most populated – Lesser Antilles has small populations, but high density – Rimland very sparsely populated Demographic Trends 1. Mortality rates extremely high during colonial era 2. 1950s and 1960s, growth rates soared 3. Recent stabilization of growth rate 4. Fertility rates decreasing and life expectancy increasing across region 5. Urbanization, education, and access to contraceptives influence family size 6. HIV/AIDs infections rate notably higher North America 7. Multiple programs aimed to lower infection rate 8. Region has one of highest negative rates of net migration – 10% of Jamaica’s population emigrated during 1980s Rural – Urban Continuum 1. Plantation America stretches from Brazil coast to southeastern U.S. – Mono-crop production under plantation system – Communities reflect plantation legacy 2. Caribbean cities have grown since 1960s – Spanish Caribbean cities have grid pattern, central plaza, and fortifications – Many cities blend colonial influences A Neo-Africa in the America The Cultural Impact of Colonialism 1. Massive population decline following arrival of European powers – Colonizers introduced plantation system 2. African slaves imported as new labor source 3. Communities of runaway slaves visible in Suriname 4. African religions widely practiced 5. End of slavery resulted in indentured labor. (Most: S/E/SE Asia) Creolization & Caribbean Identity 1. Creolization is blending of African, European, and Amerindian elements into unique culture systems found in Caribbean 2. Dominant languages are European 3. Role of Creole languages changed since 1960s 4. Home to numerous music types 5. Music mix of African rhythms and European influence 6. Music and dance key component of globalization 7. Baseball is dominant sport 8. Dominican Republic dominates talent pipeline – Influence of San Pedro de Macoris Geopolitics Intro: 1. Colonial history reflects compelling European power fighting over territories 2. European influence diminished following the Monroe Doctrine 3. Minimal foreign investment Life in the “American Backyard” 1. Initial U.S. objectives were to remove European influence and encourage democracy 2. U.S. exerted military dominance over region during early 1900s 3. Business interests typically placed ahead of democratic principles 4. 1898, Puerto Rico comes under U.S. control 5. Island relies on U.S. investment and welfare programs 6. Increased industrialization since 1950s 7. Political future debated – 2009 UN Special Committee on Decolonization resolution – 2012 referendum 8. 1898, Cuba comes under U.S. control 9. 1902, Cubs gains independence 10. State offers strongest challenge to U.S. authority in region 11. Promoted growth through tourism since end of Cold War Independence & Integration 1. 1804, Haiti becomes second independent state in hemisphere 2. Spanish colonies gained freedom by 1900 3. 1960s, British Antilles gained independence 4. Numerous territories till under colonial rule 5. Many countries struggle to meet basic needs 6. Multiple barriers exist to economic integration 7. Since 1960s numerous trade organization failed 8. 1922, Caribbean Community and common Market (CARICOM) created From Cane Fields to Freedom Intro: 1. Despite poverty, region has higher standard of living than sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia 2. Notable gains in education, health, and life expectancy 3. Linked to global economy through specialized industries From Field to Factories & Resorts 1. Agriculture dominated regional economics 2. Decline of trade agreements with former colonial power has hurt economics 3. Most economics are not diversified – Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad are exceptions 4. Economic history tried to sugarcane production 5. Demand for sugar and rum led to profitability 6. Along with Brazil region is world’s largest exporter of sugar 7. States in Lesser Antilles rely on banana crop 8. Decline in profits linked to change in guaranteed prices through WTO 9. Farmers experimenting with now crops 10. Puerto Rican economy grew during 1950s due to new assembly plants 11. Free-trade zones (FTZs) are duty-free, tax-exempt industrial parks for MNCs – Caribbean Basin Initiative helped create many FTZs 12. Offshore banking provides confidential and tax-exempt services – 1920s, Bahamas begins industry – 1990s, Bermuda and Caymans new brokers 13. Newest service is Internet gambling – Antigua sued U.S. through WTO 14. Environmental, locational, and economic factors support tourism 15. 6 countries/territories account for 2/3 of region’s tourists 16. Capital leakage is problematic across the region Social Development 1. Economic growth has been inconsistent 2. Social development measures are favorable – Life expectancy above 70 in most countries – Low gender inequality measurements 3. Remittances beneficial to many economies 4. Matriarchal basis of household’s is unique to region 5. Presence of women in workforce increasing 6. Women are more likely to attend college 7. Women recently elected to key political positions 8. High literacy rates throughout region – Haiti proves notable exception 9. Region has undergone brain drain – 40% of skilled migrants living abroad have college education 10. Brain gain more recent phenomenon 11. Emigration increased after World War II 12. Remittances are critical component of economies – Jamaicans and Haitians remit nearly $2 billion annually – Labor-related migration has become standard practice Chapter 6: Sub-Saharan Africa Intro: 1. Among the poorest most rural, and youngest regions 2. Demographically is fastest growing region 3. Regional unity based on colonial experience and common livelihoods 4. Region lacks common religion, language, or philosophy 5. Culturally complex, but contributes globally 6. Economy described as marginal 7. Recent focus of humanitarian efforts The Plateau Continent Intro: 1. Largest landmass straddling the equator 2. Features large areas of geologic uplift 3. Full of environmental contrasts Plateaus & Basins 1. Interior dominated by plateaus and elevated basins 2. Southern region rimmed by Great Escarpment 3. Mountain ranges along Rift Valley Watersheds 1. Congo: Largest watershed in region 2. Niger: Critical for West Africa 3. Nile: Key to North Africa 4. Zambezi: Source of hydroelectric power Soils 1. Most soils relatively infertile 2. Most fertile soils support densest population 3. Grasslands and semi-arid areas possess more fertile soils Climate & Vegetation 1. Mostly lies in tropics 2. Southern tip extends into subtropical, temperate climates 3. Rainfall determine vegetation variation 4. 3 biomes – Tropical Forest, Savanna, and Desert 5. Home to world’s second-largest expanse of tropical rain forest 6. Year-round precipitation 7. Logging and agriculture have cleared western and southern edges of Ituri 8. Numerous conservation efforts undertaken 9. Savanna surrounds rain forest belt 10. Northward rainy season is May to October with decreasing precipitation 11. Large wet savanna with woodlands flank Zambezi River 12. Deserts cover southern, northern boundaries 13. Sahara stretches from Atlantic coast to Red Sea 14. Belt of deserts around Horn of Africa 15. Namib and Kalahari dominate the South Environmental Issues 1. Life in Sahel is balance of limited rain, drought-resistance plants and transhumance 2. Debate over causes of desertification 3. Vegetative recovery occurring in some areas 4. Use of wood or charcoal for household energy needs greatest concern – Village women have planted green belts to supply biofuels 5. Logging has biggest impact on rain forest – Madagascar also suffers from deforestation 6. East and southern Africa have numerous wildlife reserves 7. Poaching major issue throughout region 8. 1989, cities formed to ban ivory trade Climate Change & Vulnerability 1. Climate change poses extreme risks for region 2. Most vulnerable areas – Horn of Africa, Sahel, and West Africa coastal lowlands 3. Population vulnerable to food insecurity Young & Restless Intro: 1. Region has rapidly increasing population 2. Population is young and has large families 3. Low life expectancy 4. 6 countries account for 50% of region’s population – Nigeria, Ethiopia, D.R. of Congo, South Africa, Tanzania, and Kenya Population Trends & Demographic Debates 1. Child mortality declining 2. Rural-to-urban migration increasing 3. HIV/AIDs severely impacted population 4. Family size still large, but changing policies encouraging smaller families Impact of AIDs on Africa 1. 60% of people infected are women 2. During 1980s, many governments ignored problem 3. Epidemic has numerous consequences 4. Several changes since late 1990s Patterns of Settlement & Land Use 1. Population mostly rural – Urban population growing 2. 3 population clusters – West Africa, Ethiopian Highlands, and Eastern South Africa 3. Crop staples are millet, sorghum, and corn 4. Export crops are intermixed with subsistence crops 5. Mastery of yam led to denser population along Niger River 6. Agriculture generally unproductive because of poor soils 7. Agricultural exports are critical 8. Bulk of exported goods are primary products – Coffee, Cacao, and Rubber 9. Nontraditional exports are increasing – Floriculture – Winter produce 10. Animal husbandry critical in semiarid zones 11. Tsetse files have restricted areas utilized for grazing – Eradication programs opening new regions Urban Life 1. Urban sprawl consequence of growth 2. Primary dominates many countries 3. European colonialism influenced urban structure 4. West Africa has most developed urban network 5. Most cities in West Africa are located on coast 6. Pre-colonial cities were walled and gated 7. Most West African cities are hybrid 8. Cities in Southern Africa have colonial origins 9. South African cities reflect apartheid Culture Coherence & Diversity – Unity Through Adversity Intro: 1. Region lacks traditional culture and political connection 2. Region shaped by history of slavery and colonialism 3. Culturally diverse region united by adversity Language Patterns 1. Most countries have multiple languages 2. Indigenous languages restricted to rural areas 3. Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic languages also widely spoken 4. 3 of 6 language groups are unique to region 5. Niger-Congo group most important to region – Bantu farmers diffused language and agriculture – Swahili most important language 6. Ethnic identity and language unstable for many years, but colonialism imposed divisions 7. Few countries are linguistically homogenous 8. European languages introduced for administrative reasons 9. Colonial education stressed literacy in European language 10. 2 main blocks of European language – English and French Religion 1. Native African religious classified as animistic 2. Christianity and Islam entered region before 1000 AD – Rapid spread of religions since 20 century – Millions combined animist beliefs with Christianity and Islam 3. 300 AD, Christianity arrives in northeast 4. 1600s, European settlers influential 5. 1800s, missionaries find converts in animist areas 6. Division between Protestants and Catholics based on colonial history 7. Islam introduced around 1000 years ago 8. Islam spread to Sahel through Berber traders 9. Trade saw diffusion in West Africa 10. Some countries have extremely complicated religious composition 11. Nigeria has experienced high levels of conflict within past decade 12. Northeastern are has long history of conflict Globalization & African Culture 1. Slave trade influenced culture in Americas – Modern African diaspora also important 2. Musical centers in Nigeria, Mali 3. Ethiopian and Kenyan pride in distance runners Geopolitical Framework – Legacies of Colonialism & Conflict Intro: 1. First African states formed around 700 AD in Sahel 2. Prior to European colonization, region had mix of kingdoms, states, and tribal societies 3. Current conflicts typically have roots in colonial divisions European Colonization 1. Early European colonization limited to coast due to diseases 2. 1884, Berlin Conference divided Africa 3. Germany principal instigator of scramble Decolonization & Independence 1. 1950s, decolonization begins peacefully 2. 1963, Organization of African Unity (OAU) mediates regional disputes 3. Violence occurred in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) between whites and blacks 4. Rebellions in Angola and Mozambique led to civil wars during Cold War 5. 1990s, apartheid challenged in South Africa 6. 1994, Nelson Mandela elected president 7. Remnants of apartheid visible on landscape Enduring Political Conflict 1. Colonial boundaries stimulate ethnic conflicts – Loyalty centers on tribalism 2. Ethnic conflicts widespread 3. Multiple secessionist movements Economic & Social Development – The Struggle of Rebuild Roots of African Poverty 1. Multiple causes for region’s poverty 2. Economic nationalism led to inflated currencies, which damaged exports 3. 1980s, government focus on cheap supply of food staples led to food insecurity 4. Widespread corruption limits economic potential Links to the World Economy 1. Limited trade within and outside the region 2. Connections exist because of aid and loans 3. World Bank and IMF have reduced debt levels, which has stimulated social improvements Economic Differentiation 1. Regional trade blocs support development – SADC and ECOWAS most powerful 2. Mineral and oil rich countries have highest per capita CNI, but have economic disparity 3. Region’s poor struggle to find sustainable jobs Measuring Social Development 1. Modest improvements in child mortality rates 2. HIV/AIDs, extended conflicts lower life expectancies 3. Many children lack basic education 4. Women noticeable participants in workforce 5. Community organizations improving economic opportunities for women Chapter 7: Southwest Asia & North Africa Intro: 1. Southwest Asia & North Africa is awkward and complex term 2. Difficult to define regional boundaries 3. Global culture hearth that exemplifies globalization 4. Many states belong to Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 5. Trends influencing region – Islamic fundamentalism advantages adhere to traditional practice – Islamism challenges global popular culture and advocates merging civil and religious authority Legacies of A Vulnerable Landscape 1. Environmental history reflects short-sighted and resourceful practices 2. Island of Socotra illustrates vulnerability and globalization’s threat to ecosystem 3. Deforestation and overgrazing long-term problem 4. Most of forests reduced to grass and scrubs 5. Many countries have launched reforestation programs 6. Irrigation has caused buildup of salts in the oil 7. Long history of managing drainage systems and water flows at local level 8. Fossil water taps into underground resources 9. Hydropolitics has raised tensions throughout region Regional Landforms 1. Atlas Mountains dominate Maghreb across Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia 2. Interior rocky plateaus and desert lowlands cover North Africa 3. Levant has mountains 20 miles from coast reaching 10000 feet 4. Arabian Peninsula is titled plateau 5. Highlands north and east of Arabian Peninsula 6. Small lowlands in Southwest Asia Patterns of Climates 1. Complex pattern due to latitude and altitude 2. Nearly continuous belt of desert 3. Plant and animal life adapted to extreme conditions 4. Atlas Mountains, Levant have Mediterranean climates Climate Change 1. Temperature changes will produce higher evaporation rates and lower soil moisture 2. Sea-level changes will impact Nile Delta 3. Possible political and economic impact Population & Settlement – Pattern in An Arid Land Geography of Population 1. Intimate tie between water and life 2. Some areas sparsely populated while others suffer from overcrowding 3. Physiological density very high by global measure Rural Settlement 1. Health of plant and animal domestication 2. Activity focused on Fertile Crescent 3. Irrigation and rise of states diffused agriculture 4. Pastoral nomadism dominates in drier portions 5. Permanent oases exist near high groundwater levels or deep-water wells – Walled villages with intensely farmed fields – Recent incorporation into global economy 6. Densest settlements tried to irrigated river valleys 7. Mediterranean climate permits dry land agriculture dependent on seasonal moisture – Mechanization, crop specialization, fertilizers changing settings The Urban Imprint 1. Mesopotamian urbanization began by 3500 BC 2. Islam left mark on cities – Walled core – Central mosque – Bazaar serving as market – Housing districts with narrow streets 3. Colonial impact seen in North Africa 4. Cities have become global gateways 5. New investment, industrialization, and tourism are key A Region on the Move 1. New migration reflects global economy and recent political events 2. Attractive location to foreign workers 3. Political forces shaping refugee movements Shifting Demographic Patterns 1. Still has high population growth 2. Great variation within region 3. Patterns connected with urbanization, religion Culture Coherence & Diversity – Signature of Complexity Pattern of Religion 1. Jews and Christianity trace roots to eastern Mediterranean hearth – Roman occupation led to Jewish diaspora – Christian minorities presents in Egypt, Lebanon, and other countries 2. Islam originates in Hejaz region 3. Quran is book of teachings received by Muhammad from God 4. 5 pillars of Islam key components of religion 5. Division within Islam occurred after death of Muhammad in 632 CE 6. Islam dominates region 7. Region dominated by Sunni Muslims 8. Shiites connected to Islamist movement 9. Smaller branches of Islam along periphery 10. Jerusalem holds significant for Jews, Christianity, and Muslims 11. Utilization of sacred space is key to conflict – Western Wall – Church of the Holy Sepulchre – Al-Haram Al-Sharif: a. k. a Temple Mount Geographies of Language 1. Afro-Asiatic languages dominate region – Arabic most widespread – Hebrew reintroduced with creation of Israel – Older languages survive as Berber 2. Iranian Plateau and nearby mountains dominated by Indo-European languages 3. Turkish is core language of Turkey Regional culture in Global Context 1. Islam links region with global Muslim population 2. Conflicts between retaining traditional values and benefits of economic growth 3. Technology contributes to culture and political change Geopolitical Framework – Never Ending Tension Intro: 1. Arab Spring brought many government changes 2. Focus of Arab Spring – Government corruption – Limited opportunities for democracy – Rapidly rising food prices – Enduring poverty and high unemployment The Colonial Legacy 1. 1550-1850, Ottoman Empire dominated area 2. France, Great Britain major colonial players – 1869, Suez Canal connects Mediterranean and Red Sea 3. Persia, Turkey never occupied by colonial powers 4. 1950s-1960s, most states gained independence Modern Geopolitical Issues 1. North Africa has seen dramatic changes – Tunisia removed dictator – Libya removed Qaddafi, who ruled since 1969 – Egypt forced resignation of Hosni Mubarak – Sudan faces issues with South Sudan and Darfur 2. 1948, Israel created 3. Numerous armed conflicts through 1970s 4. Political fragmentation of Palestinian has impacted negotiations 5. Syrian civil war ongoing since March 2011 6. Future of Iraq as multinational state 7. Protests in Bahrain seeking democratic reforms 8. Iran’s nuclear ambitious pose threat to region Economic & Social Development – Lands of Wealth & Poverty Intro: 1. Region exhibits extreme wealth and poverty 2. Distribution of oil and natural gas resources divides region 3. Political instability causes economic turmoil 4. Large oil and gas reserves in Persian Gulf and North Africa Regional Economic Patterns 1. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE are wealthiest states due to oil reserves 2. Economics susceptible to fluctuation due to world oil markets 3. Depletion of reserves could harm states 4. Political variables have affected economic growth 5. Israel thrives, but Palestinian conflict saps potential 6. Turkey has diversified economy around agriculture, industry, and tourism 7. Political instability and lack of resources causes of poverty – Sudan suffers from political unrest – Egypt endures brain drain aimed economic downturn – Yemen poorest country in region with minimal oil resources A Woman’s Changing World 1. Female labor rates amongst lowest in the world 2. Women’s access to social activities limited in conservative areas 3. Women’s roles are changing, which stirs debate about niqab and chador Global Economic Relationships 1. Region connected to global economy primarily through oil and gas resources 2. OPEC does not control oil prices, but influences availability 3. Turkey, Israel illustrate diversified economies of region 4. 2005, Arab League members created Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) – Other agreements with Mediterranean states 5. Tourism draws visitors to historic sites, beaches, and wildlife Chapter 8: Europe Intro: 1. Very diverse region with 500 million people 2. Blend of language, religions create diverse culture 3. Current trend promotes economic, political, and culture unity Environment Intro: • 4 factors influence environment diversity – Complex geology – Latitudinal extent – Influences of Atlantic and major seas – Long history of human settlement Landform Regions 1. European Lowland – Economic focus of western Europe – High population density, intensive agriculture, major cities and industrial regions 2. Alpine Mountain System – Spine of Europe – Distinct regional names 3. Central Uplands – Contains raw materials 4. Western Highlands – Oldest mountains in region – Thin soils Europe’s Climate • 3 principle climates – Moderate, moist marine climate – Continental climate with not summer and cold winter – Dry Mediterranean climate in the south Seas, Rivers, and Ports 1. 4 major seas circle continent 2. Multiple navigable rivers connected by canals and lacks Environmental issues 1. History of agriculture, resource extraction, manufacturing, and urbanization 2. Air pollution, acid rain widespread 3. More problems in eastern Europe until recently Climate Change 1. Global warming evident on many levels 2. EU attempting to reduce emissions while promoting industry 3. 2005, EU implemented emission trading scheme Population & Settlement Low (or No) Natural Growth 1. Major population themes – Low or nonexistent natural growth – Patterns of internal and international migration – High levels of urbanization 2. Most countries have slow natural growth 3. Many governments promote pro-natal policies Migration Within Europe • Schengen Agreement facilitates movement of people across region – 26 members – 4 members who are not part of EU – 2 EU members have opt-outs International Migration to Europe 1. Workers flooded region after World War II 2. Collapse of Soviet Union led to influx from eastern Europe 3. Current border situation described as “Fortress Europe” The Landscapes of Urban Europe • 3 periods dominate urban landscape – Medieval – Narrowing winding streets – Renaissance – Baroque, open spaces with ceremonial building, monuments – Industrial – Factories, railroad stations, and sprawl Cultural Coherence & Diversity Intro: 1. Varied mix of language, customs, religions, and livelihoods 2. European cultures have played key role in globalization 3. New waves of global culture influencing region Geographies of Language 1. Language key aspect of nationalism and group identity 2. 90% of Europeans speak Germanic, Romance, or Slavic language 3. EU recognizes 24 official languages 4. Germanic – German, English two dominant languages 5. Romance – Strong regional dialects 6. Slavic – Largest Indo-European Sub-family; Divided into northern and southern groups Geographies of Religion 1. Current tensions result of historical events 2. Large immigrant populations add to tension levels 3. Schism between Western and Eastern Christianity – 1054, split between eastern Orthodox Christianity and western Christianity 4. Protestant Revolt – 1500s, split occur within Roman Catholicism 5. Islam – History of Christianity crusades to reclaim Jerusalem – 1453, Turks conquer Constantinople 6. Judaism – Jews persecuted by many authorities – 1939, 9.5 million Jews living in Europe 7. Contemporary patterns – 250 million Roman Catholics – 100 million Protestants – 13 million Muslims European Culture in Global Framework 1. European culture spread through colonialism 2. Region currently experiences reverse flow of migrants 3. Ethnic clustering created ghettos and issues of assimilation 4. Gender inequality continues in government, business 5. Eastern Europe, Balkans has large female workforce 6. Migrant cultures cause legal tension Geopolitical framework Redrawing the Map Through War 1. Concept of nation-state emerged in region 2. Region has legacy of geopolitical problems 3. Numerous hotspots tied to regional autonomy th 4. Two wars reshaped map during 20 century 5. New states created, empires dismantled 6. Many states promoted irredentism during interior period 7. Economics contributed to geopolitical issues A Divided Europe 1. 1945-1990, Europe divided into two geopolitical and economic camps – East dominated by communism – West created alliance to counter communist influence 2. Yalta Conference laid groundwork for division of post-World War II Europe 3. Soviet Union wanted buffer zone from west 4. 1950s, military alliances of NATO, Warsaw Pact created 5. 1989, Berlin Wall opened 6. Several factors led to downfall of communist governments 7. Map reshaped again due to ethnic nationalism The Balkans: Geopolitical Nightmare 1. Southeastern Europe has long history of geopolitical instability – Balkanization 2. 1918, Yugoslavia created 3. 1945, communists take control 4. 1991, Slovenia, Croatia and Macedonia declare independence 5. 1991-1999, country breaks into civil war 6. 2008, Kosovo declared independence 7. Slovenia and Croatia now members of EU Economic & Social Development Intro: 1. Industrial capitalism originated in region 2. Effort to promote economic integration since World War II 3. Western Europe experienced post-World War II economic boom 4. Currently in situation of economic uncertainty Europe’s Industrial Revolution 1. 1750s, Industrial Revolution started in England 2. English textile industry first to blossom 3. Ruhr district heart of continental industry Rebuilding Postwar Europe 1. 1951, European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed – 6 members 2. 1957, European Economic Community (EEC) created 3. 1965, Brussels Treaty established groundwork for political union 4. 1991, Maastricht Treaty creates EU 5. 2004-2013, EU admits 13 members – Mostly former Eastern Bloc states – 6 official candidates – 2 potential candidates 6. European Monetary Union led to replacement of national currencies – 19 members – 2 members have permanent opt-outs – 4 microstates use with authorization – 2 countries use without authorization Economic Transition in Eastern Europe 1. Eastern Europe has historically been less developed – Not as rich in resources as west – History of explosion by outside interests 2. Collapse of Soviet Union led eastern European economies being redirected toward west – Transition from socialist-based economy to capitalist economy Economic Disparities & Uncertainty • Economic and social disparity visible throughout the region – Domestic migration, international migration cause tension – Recent fiscal crises stir debate about strength of Euro “€”
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