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Date Created: 04/13/16
Chapter 1: Concepts of World Geography Intro: Five themes of Geography 1. Location 2. Place 3. Relationships within places – Human-environment interaction 4. Relationships between places – Movement 5. Regions Latitude and Longitude 1. Latitude: Parallels run east-west and measure locations north/south of equator 2. Longitude: Meridians run north-south and measure locations east/west of Prime Meridian 3. Global Positioning System (GPS): System of satellites first used by U.S. military in 1960s Map Projections 1. Difficult to project nearly spherical Earth onto a flat surface without some distortion 2. Mercator projection is best known because of its use for oceanic exploration 3. Robinson projection shows entire world in one image (thethruesize.com) Map Scale • Representative fraction: The cartographic term for ratio between map and area being mapped – (1:63360 or 1/63360) Aerial Photos & Remote Sensing • Remote sensing: The method of digitally photographing Earth’s surface so information is manipulated into electromagnetic bandwidths for analysis Geographic Information Systems (GIS) • GIS: spatial databases that contain vast amounts of data from different sources that is used to analyze human and physical problem and processes Environmental Geography 1. Climate 2. Geology 3. Hydrology 4. Vegetation 5. Environmental Issues Population & Settlement 1. Rate of natural increase (RNI) provides annual growth rate for country/region as percentage – Does not account for migration 2. Crude birth rate: The gross number of births divided by total population 3. Crude death rate: The gross number of deaths divided by total population 4. Total fertility rate (TFR): The average number of children who will be borne by women through childbearing years 5. Population pyramid: graphical indicator of population’s age and sex structure – Displays percentage of population that is male/female in different age cohorts – Reveals structural changes of population 6. Life expectancy: The average length of life expected at birth of a typical male/female in a special country 7. Demographic Transition: A model to track changes in birth rates and death rates over time Global Migration 1. Push forces: The factors that drive people from homeland 2. Pull forces: The factors that attract people to certain locations 3. Informational networks: The connections between push and pull forces 4. Net migration rate: A statistic that indicates whether more people are entering or leaving a region Settlement Geography 1. Population density: The average number of people per area unit – Arithmetic density – Physiological density 2. Urbanized population: The percentage of a country’s population living in cities Culture Coherence & Diversity Culture in Globalizing World 1. Culture: A learned behavior held in common by group of people – Abstract dimensions – Material dimensions 2. Collision of cultures has many results – Culture imperialism: The active promotion of one culture system of expense of another – Culture nationalism: The process of protecting and defending a culture system against diluting expressions while promoting local cultural values 3. Culture syncretism: The blending of forces to form new, synergistic form of culture Gender & Globalization • Gender is linked to values and traditions of specific cultural groups that distinguish the characteristic of two biological sexes Language & Culture in Global Context 1. Language is trait that can divide two cultures 2. Language have multiple classifications – Language family: First-order grouping – Language branch: Closely related subset within language family 3. Dialect: How a language is spoken in a certain region – Lingua franca: A third language used as common tongue The Geography of World Religions • Two major types of religion – Universalizing: A religion that appeals to a large group of people, regardless of local culture and conditions (Ex. Christianity) – Ethnic: A religion closely associated with a specific ethnic or tribal group, often assuming the role of major defining characteristic of that group (Ex. Hinduism) Geopolitical Framework Unity & Fragmentation 1. Geopolitics: The relationship between politics and space and territory – Friedrich Ratzel developed the field in the late 1800s 2. Sovereignty: The ability of government to control activities within its borders. 3. Nation-State: A relatively homogeneous cultural group with its own political territory – Nation represents the people – State represents the government Colonialism, Decolonization, & Neocolonialism 1. Colonialism: The formal establishment of rule over a foreign population 2. Decolonization: The process of a colony gain/regaining control over its own territory 3. Neocolonialism: The ways in which newly independent states remain or become dependent upon other states Economic & Social Development 1. Economic development is typical accepted as desirable because it leads to social improvements 2. Half the world’s population lives on 1% of its land Indicators of Economic Development 1. Development and growth are not interchangeable – Development typically implies structural change and improvements – Growth is an increase in size 2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders 3. Gross National Income (GNI): The value of goods and services produced in a year by a country regardless of geographic location 4. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): Exchange rate used to compare output, income, or prices among countries with different currencies Indicators of Social Development 1. Conditions and quality of human life are important 2. Common assumption is that economic development is always positive 3. Human Development Index (HDI): A UN-devised index that measures social development – Combines data on life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, gender equity, and income Chapter 2: The Changing Global Environment Intro: Geology shapes Earth’s surface 1. Creates landforms 2. Geologic foundation critical to human activities 3. Physical environment presents challenges and hazards Plate Tectonics 1. A geophysical theory that Earth is comprised of large geologic platforms that move slowly across its surface 2. Types of plate boundaries – Collision – Divergent – Subduction Global Climate • Intro: Human activities are closely linked to weather and climate – Severe Weather impacts trade, global level, etc. and has wide ranging effects – Global Warming impacts humans and the environment Climate Controls 1. Solar energy 2. Latitude 3. Interaction between land and water 4. Global pressure system 5. Global wind patterns 6. Topography World Climate Region 1. Weather: The short-time, day-to-day expression of atmospheric processes 2. Climate: The long-term average Chapter 3: North America Intro: 1. Components of NA – U.S. and Canada – Debates exist over name and dividing line 2. Globalization has reshaped NA – Migration – Tourism – Multinational corporations 3. Region has great cultural and physical diversity 4. Region has benefited from economic growth – Postindustrial economy: An economy shaped by tertiary and quaternary sectors – Environment impact of development has been steep 5. Continuing divide in income and quality of life A Threaten Weather • Human and physical geographies extremely diverse and intimately linked – 2005, Hurricane Katrina – 2010, Gulf of Mexico oil spill – 2011, Flooding along Upper Mississippi River The Costs of Human Modification 1. Globalization, urbanization, and economic growth have altered region’s landforms, soils, vegetation, and climate 2. Energy consumption remains high – Produces 20% of Earth’s greenhouse gas emissions – Debate over hydraulic fracturing Transforming Soils & Vegetation • Arrival of Europeans had major impact on flora and fauna – New species introduced – Grasslands replaced with grains and forage crops – Eastern forests removed Managing Water 1. North Americans consume large amounts of water – Several U.S. cities have outdated water supply systems – Depletion of Ogallala Aquifer – Drought affects many areas of U.S. 2. Many Americans exposed to water pollution – U.S. Clean Water Act and Canadian Green Plan insufficient – Mining and industrial centers create toxic wastewater Altering the Atmosphere 1. Urban neat island effect changing regional climates and composition of atmosphere – Development and urbanization cause nighttime temperatures that are higher than surrounding areas 2. Acid rain and air pollution also are detrimental – Acid rain producers allocated in Midwest and Southern Ontario – Winds distribute phenomena across Northeast and Eastern Canada Growing Environmental Awareness 1. Most initiative focus on local, regional issues 2. Increasing support for sustainable agriculture 3. Renewable energy sources expanding Patterns of Climate & Vegetation 1. Climate and vegetation are diverse 2. Great Lakes creates north/south division while Rockies provide east/west split Climate Change & North America • Effects of global warming already noticeable – Increased coastal erosion – Migration of whales and polar bears impacted – Alpine glaciers shrinking Population & Settlement Intro: 1. North American landscape has changed immensely over last 400 years 2. More than 345 million people currently reside in region Modern Spatial & Demographic Patterns 1. Large metropolitan areas dominate the region – Canada’s “Main Street” – Megalopolis 2. Population has increased greatly since European colonization – U.S. population increased from 2.5 million (1770) to 30 million (1860) – Current rate of natural increase is below 1% Chapter 4: Latin America Intro: 1. Region linked because of shared colonial history 2. Concept of region developed in early 1900s 3. Clear regional divide 4. Economics changed in 1960s 5. Large middle class belies presence of poverty 6. Region undergoing rapid urbanization 7. Area possesses varied natural resource base Environment Intro: 1. Neotropics: The tropical ecosystems of the Western Hemisphere 2. Large sections of region lie outside the tropics 3. Major concerns relate to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and livability of urban area Destruction of Tropical Rain Forests 1. Amazon Basin and eastern lowlands of Central America and Mexico retain forests 2. Brazil most criticized country 3. Many locations undergoing grassification Urban Environment Challenges 1. Air pollution: Topography and weather factors in Mexico City and Santiago 2. Water: Higher demands and quality concerns (scarcity) 3. Sustainability of cities: Strides in planning Western Mountains & Eastern Lowlands 1. The Andes – Ecologically and geologically diverse – Divided into 3 components – Altiplano in Peru and Bolivia 2. The uplands of Mexico and Central America – Settlement of Mexican Plateau & Volcanic Axis – Agriculture centers 3. Eastern Shields – Brazilian – Patagonian – Guiana 4. River Basins – Amazon – Plata – Orinoco Climate & Climate Change 1. Variable precipitation across the region – Distinct wet and dry seasons 2. Deserts mostly along Pacific coast 3. Midlatitude climates in Argentina, Uruguay 4. Altitudinal zonation illustrates relationship between elevation and temperature that results in changing vegetation 5. El Nino is change in ocean temperatures that occurs that alters typical weather patterns – Impact is widespread 6. Climate change affecting agricultural productivity, water availability, changes in ecosystems, and increases in some diseases Population & Settlement – The Dominance of Cities Intro: 1. Historical population clustered in interior plateaus and valleys 2. Recent growth in coastal regions, especially Atlantic lowlands 3. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Argentina account for 70% of region’s population The Latin American City 1. Region has high level of urban primacy 2. Urban form blends colonial origins with modern growth – CBD is colonial remnant – Elite spine reflects modern growth Patterns of Rural Settlement 1. Historically, control of land key to political and economic power th 2. Agrarian reforms of 20 century have faced backlash 3. Governments created agriculture frontiers in response to failed agrarian reforms Population Growth & Movement 1. Natural increase and immigration driving growth in region – 1960s and 1970s saw high levels of growth 2. Decreasing family sizes in many countries 3. After independence many countries encouraged European immigration 4. Chinese and Japanese immigrants arrived starting in late 1800s 5. Political instability has spurred international immigration 6. Mexicans largest migrant group 7. Remittances vital to many in region – 2011 $61 billion sent to region The Decline of Native Populations 1. Indigenous population was 47 million prior to colonization 2. 1650, indigenous population dwindled to nearly 5 million 3. Areas with densest native population have largest current indigenous settlements Patterns of Ethnicity & Culture 1. Four racial categories 2. 2/3 speak Spanish and 1/3 Portuguese 3. Roman Catholic is dominant religion, but notable presence of syncretic religions The Global Reach of Latino Culture 1. Emergency of Spanish – Language TV and radio stations in U.S. 2. Population of Latino futbol player on global global scale 3. Telenovelas exported to China, Russia, Iran, etc. Iberian Conquest & Territorial Division 1. Treaty of Tordesillas divided Atlantic world 2. Portugal and Spain took different approaches 3. 1810, Spanish colonies start revolutions 4. 1825, Brazil gained independence 5. Multiple conflicts changed initial borders 6. Region suffers from political instability, but recently trending toward democracy Trade Blocs 1. Since 1960s, trade organizations have promoted internal markets and reduced tariffs 2. Following growth of Mercosur, Brazil proposed UNASUR Insurgencies & Drug Cartels 1. Guerilla groups control large areas of countries – 2.5 million displaced Colombians since 1980 2. Drug cartels blamed for violence in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, and other places Focusing on Neoliberalism Development Strategies 1. Since 1960s, countries had notable presence of multinational organizations 2. By 1990s, neoliberalism policies were adopted throughout region 3. Foreign investment spurred growth and decline of maquiladoras 4. Informed sector crucial to region despite unknown size Primary Export Dependency 1. Since 1960s, mechanization and diversification are the major agricultural trends 2. Agricultural sector becoming more capital-intensive 3. Mining is staple of many economics – Bolivia, Chile, and Peru among top producers of many commodities 4. Logging is important, but controversial activity – Growth of plantation forests due to FDI 5. Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela meet their own fuel needs 6. Natural gas production increasing in region – Large reserves in Bolivia and Venezuela 7. Brazil dominates biofuels Latin America in the Global Economy 1. Latin America’s role in global economy explained through dependency theory 2. Region’s FDI has increased since mid-1990s 3. Remittances reflects integration of workers in global market place 4. Neoliberalism policies expanded in 1990s – Leads to increased trade and reduced debt payments 5. Financial crises of 1990s led to increased dollarization through region – Implemented to counteract currency devaluation and hyperinflation Social Development 1. Marked improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and educational equity – Step decline in child mortality rate since 1990 – 84% of people have access to adequate clean water – Life expectancy is 74 years 2. Government programs and NGOs have improved social well-being – Brazil’s Bolsa Familia – Catholic Relief Services & Caritas 3. Variation between rural and urban places, between regions, and along ethnic/racial lines 4. Race relations very good in some spheres 5. Racial classification is subjective relative – 11% population black in Brazil’s 2000 Census 6. Indigenous populations possess low socioeconomic positions 7. Division of class often associated with race
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