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Week 2 Notes (Chapter 2: Neuroanatomy)

by: Meghan Pavelka

Week 2 Notes (Chapter 2: Neuroanatomy) PSY 3216

Marketplace > Appalachian State University > Psychlogy > PSY 3216 > Week 2 Notes Chapter 2 Neuroanatomy
Meghan Pavelka
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Week 2 Notes from Lectures and Textbook Chapter 2: Neuroanatomy
Biological Psychology
Dr. Zrull
Class Notes
#biopsych, #biologicalpsychology, #biopsychology, #neuroanatomy, #neurons, #notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Pavelka on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3216 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Zrull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Biological Psychology in Psychlogy at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
Bio Psych Chapter 2: Neuroanatomy  Lecture & Supplemental Textbook Notes I. Types of Cells  Neurons: responsible for info processing; receives & integrates info from other cells,  arranged in circuits o Neuron Doctrine: the brain is composed of separate neurons & other cells that are  independent structurally, metabolically, & functionally; info is transmitted from cell to  cell across tiny gaps (synapses) o Multipolar: have many dendrites & a single axon; most common type of neuron o Bipolar: have a single dendrite at one end of the cell and a single axon at the other end;  common in sensory systems o Unipolar: have a single extension (process), branches in 2 directions after leaving the  cell body; input & output zone o Four functional zones:  Dendrites: serve as an input zone, receiving info from other neurons  Cell body: aka soma; contains cell's nucleus; acts as an integration zone  Axon: produces electrical impulses; serves as a conduction zone  Axon terminals: act as a functional output zone; transmit the neuron's activity to  other cells at synapses  Glial cells: support neurons; can absorb or make neurotransmitters as necessary; continue to  divide throughout life; four types: o Astrocyte: star­shaped glial cell w/ processes in all directions; regulate local blood  flow; involved in formation of new synapses  Blood Brain Barrier: not equally strong throughout the brain; made of capillaries  & astrocytes o Microglial cell: migrate to sites of injury/disease to remove debris o Oligodendrocytes: forms myelin in the CNS o Schwann cells: forms myelin in the PNS II. Peripheral Nervous System  Peripheral nervous system: aggregations of neurons are called ganglia; bundles of axons are  called nerves; in the CNS, aggregations of neurons are called nuclei & bundles of axons are  called tracts o Cranial nerves: connected directly to the brain; 12 pairs of nerves; sensory (info goes in; afferent), motor (info goes out; efferent), or both o Spinal nerves: 5 segments; provide input & output for the body; 31 pairs  Dorsal root: afferent; info goes in through sensory  Ventral root: efferent/motor  Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, & coccygeal  o Autonomic NS (ANS): autonomic ganglia innervate major organs  Sympathetic: fight or flight; uses norepinephrine (accelerates activity)  Parasympathetic: rest & digest; brings body back to resting state; uses  acetylcholine (slows down activity) III. Cerebral Cortex  Cerebral cortex: the outer covering; conscious processing; 6 layers of cells (layer 5 = output  layer; layer 4 = input; rest of the layers = intracortex communication) o Gyrus: raised area of the brain's surface     o Sulcus: grooves (plural, sulci); larger grooves = fissures    Cerebral Cortex Functional Organization: o Primary areas (in each hemisphere): basic consciousness; interact w/ non­cortical areas  Sensory: receive converging afferents; 5 areas (one for each of the senses); feed  association cortex  Motor: send specific efferents w/ collaterals; 1 area; triggers movement; fed by  association cortex o Association areas:   Input & output: cortical afferents; cortical efferents; both convergence &  divergence  Function: sensory/perceptual processing; motor planning; many other "complex"  functions  Association cortex: conscious thinking, problem solving, creativity o  Corpu    callosum: C­shaped band of axons that connects the 2 hemispheres o Meninges: 3 layers of tissue  Pia mater: innermost of the 3 layers; delicate; adheres tightly to the brain's surface       Dura mater: the outermost of the 3 layers; tough & protective  Arachnoid: thin web­like covering btwn. the dura & pia mater; suspends the brain  in CSF o Ventricular system: fluid filled spaces inside the brain  Choroid plexus: highly vascular portion of the lining of the ventricles that secretes  CSF IV. Forebrain and Hindbrain  Forebrain: o Basal ganglia: involuntary muscle control & body position o Limbic system: responsible for emotion, learning, and memory  Amygdala:  anterior part of the temporal lobe; responsible for emotion regulation  and odor perception  Hippocampus: in the medial temporal lobe; imp. for learning and memory o Diencephalon: posterior part of the forebrain  Thalamus: relay station; directs sensory info to appropriate regions  Hypothalamus: regulates behavior; rules over ANS; regulates endocrine system;  fleeing, fighting, feeding, fluid, & fucking  Pituitary Gland  Hindbrain/brain stem: sensory functions (except for vision); low­level processing;  involuntary muscle control; homeostasis; motor output; facial muscle control o Cerebellum: balance; automatic/learned movement; motor control o Pons: connects the midbrain to the medulla; input & output axons for the cerebellum o Medulla: regulates breathing & HR V. Principles of Brain Functioning  Sensory & motor are separated throughout the NS  Inputs & outputs are crossed: left brain controls right body & vice versa  There is symmetry & asymmetry in structure­function relationships o Asymmetry is associated w/ high­order thinking  Function of "systems" is hierarchical & in parallel o With a red, rolling ball, the brain processes "red" "rolling" and "ball" separately, in a  parallel manner  Function in localized to regions & distributed across structures; function/processing is  controlled by networks  Function is mediated at multiple levels (levels of analysis)  Excitation & inhibition are important; removing inhibition is often easier than starting up  excitation


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