History 3211 week 14 notes
History 3211 week 14 notes 3211
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Eschenbach on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3211 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Greg Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Classical Greece in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
4-14-16 Dikasteria—original legal mechanisms in Athens Had judges, not juries—200 judges per trial—just regular citizens who volunteered for the job for one year o The face of demos—not there to be individuals, there to represent the demos o No higher authority in Athens than the demos o Few if any rules about admissibility of evidence o Each side could bring witnesses but there is no cross examination—no challenging of witnesses Very often are character witnesses—general character of the people involved in the trial has a large impact on the outcome o Ad hoc—deciding each case on its merits as it happens o Klepsydra—water clock used to time the speeches of those involved to ensure they don’t go over Dike o Personal injury o Initiated by the person who was injured o Case: murder of Eratosthenes—main speech given by the defendant, Euphiletus written by Lysias (458-380)—one of the most well-known Athenian speech writers, great stylist, his use of Greek language was a model for others Wasn’t actually Athenian, he was a Metic o Speech writer is called a logographos o Defense—being accused of murder—doesn’t deny that he killed Eratosthenes, says it’s an example of a lawful killing—takes place in Euphiletus’ bedroom where he caught him in bed with his wife—harming the Oikos, very mean s of existence, extraordinarily serious crime—more fundamental problem—if the Oikos is our main means of existence and this action threatens this, then killing if justifiable There is a rule—must catch the adulterer in the middle of the act itself which he does o Know the difference between Eratosthenes and Euphiletus--***WILL BE ON THE EXAM**** o Era manages to have an affair with Euph’s wife because of the child who slept upstairs with the mother while Euph slept downstairs Euph comes back early from a trip while Era is still in the house, wife acts normal, joking, etc. trying to conceal Era’s presence in the house Old mistress of Era gets jealous he left her so she goes to Euph to tell him what is going on—says he ‘makes an art of it’— ‘if you take your servant girl and torture her, you will learn all’ For a slaves claim to be taken as true, it must be under distress (torture) Gets it out of the servant without torturing her o Brings other Athenians with him when he goes to deal with Era—witnesses, also if Era resists, Euph will have a few guys to help him subdue Era o More often money can be extracted from the guilty party rather than killing them—this is what Era asked Euph to do but Euph killed him anyway 1 4-14-16 o This whole case depends on the law which states that it is justified to kill the man if he is CAUGHT IN THE ACT o Rape is considered a less serious offense than seduction—in their world it is the far greater harm-the character of the wife and her commitment to her household is compromised—won’t be able to maintain the household for her husband o Luring the man into a trap would be entrapment and unlawful o Results of the trial are unknown Graphe o Polis injury o Initiated by any Athenian who feels the person injured the polis—anyone who is a part of the polis o Example—Socrates’ trial Spartan Hegemony—404-371 o Hegemony: leadership, sometimes with an element of force involved but not necessarily o Just after Peloponnesian War o Sparta primarily concerned with domestic security, as long as the home area was safe, they were fine Changes after war o Lysander—architect of Spartan imperialism following the war—helped by Agesilaus (Agis II’s younger brother) o Typical governmental system used here was to impose small oligarchies (dekarchies—ten people) boards of ten locals backed up by a Spartan harmost (arranger) and a Spartan garrison o 398 Agis II dies and Agesilaus, his younger brother, takes over as king New great plan—invade the Persian empire, reclaim the Ionian city- states they gave back after the war Launched a campaign for this in 396—gets the attention of the Persian king Artaxerxes—send Persian agents to Greece with loads of cash, get an unlikely alliance between Persian and Athenians along the coast of Asia minor against Sparta Corinthian war follows this 395-386—Athens, Thebes, Corinth, were all trying to box Spartans in, most fighting centered around Corinth During the fighting, Lysander is killed Athenians use Persian money to rebuild the long walls Neither side has a decisive win but the allies have the upper hand, Spartans try to appeal to the Persian to broker a peace between the various Greek forces End of the war is the King’s peace 386—in exchange for the king of Persia getting involved in Greek issues, Persia retakes their land If any side violates this peace, the king of Persia will attack them Meant to be broken as if it were fair and equal to all sides however Spartans are closer to the Persians and when they return to bullying type behavior, Persian turn a blind eye Biggest example of this, 382, Spartans take Thebes and establish a dekarchy and a garrison—attempt to neutralize Thebes 2 4-14-16 Thebes rebels against this, Melon and Phillidas decide to betray the oligarchs and work with exiles to overthrow them—Phil promises oligarchs he would bring them very beautiful women—Melon was an exiled Thebian leading those into the room with the oligarchs who were waiting to kill them As soon as they sat down dressed as women, they revealed themselves from under their veils and kill the oligarchs—all happened in 379 o Athenian forces take out the garrison, Thebes is effectively liberated o 377—establish a Second Athenian Naval Confederacy (2 ndDelian League— what it originally was) o Group was more democratic, more inclusive—all the allies if they got together could outvote the Athenians rather than Athenians always having final say Included 70 poleis which, if they all got together, could outvote Athens o 370s—Thebes Epaminondas— Thebes is in Boeotia with more than a dozen other city-states in the region Democratic merger occurs between all the city-states in Boeotia into a single super-state—means a much more impressive military force is possible Boiotarkhs—11 of them, one from each part of Boeotia, merge their forces and manpower, have a substantial army Sacred band of thieves—special forces unit of 300 guys who were all effectively professionals o They were all lovers—300 guys, 150 couples o Gets them to fight for the love of their life when they go in set apart because they were effectively professionals, full-time warriors Spartans are getting very worried about the Theban super-power that is developing 371—common peace—Peace conference called to take place in Sparta, Athenians go to it but Thebans do not, Spartan force sent up to attack Thebes o Battle of Leuctra 371—11,000 Spartans against 6,000 Thebans o Sacred band, 300 special forces, all are grouped against to face the right wing of the Spartan army and completely smash them —first time in Greek history where the Spartans have been beaten by another Greek polis-devastating to the Spartans Theban Hegemony—371-362 Rise of Macedon under Philip II—362-336 o kingdom with a royal family—were the Macedonians themselves as actually Greeks? Alexander the Great—336-323 3