HIST1020 Cold War in Eastern Europe
HIST1020 Cold War in Eastern Europe World history II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to World history II at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World History 2C in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Cold War Eastern Europe 1 C OLD W AR IN E ASTERN E UROPE 4/7/2016 Study Questions I. How did Laszlo and Rudolf Slansky die? II. What do special-access shops tell us about communist leaders’ privileges in Cold War Eastern Europe? III. What happened in the Black Triangle during the Cold War? IV. Discuss the family policy of Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania. I. Intro A. Eastern Europe a. Soviet sphere of influence after WWII till end of cold war (November 9, 1989) b. The countries i. East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. ii. Authoritarian/communist and command economy iii. Yugoslavia escaped from soviet domination so it isn’t listed above. It was authoritarian like above (communist and Leninist) and had a command economy (not because of SU). c. Life was generally very difficult during this time. II. Study Question 1 (I): How did Laszlo and Rudolf Slansky die? A. Purges a. 1840s and 1850s b. Modeled on Stalin’s great purge of 1936-68 (tried to end political opposition) c. The purges of east Europe started with the members of the ruling party and spread to other elements of society. i. Goal: scare the population and intimidate into following the wishes of the rulers. ii. Carried out using training from SU in police interrogation methods. 1. Police methods of feared soviet Cheka 2. Very brutal and Cheka methods used to train police 3. Cheka apparatus spied on the people 4. Cheka founded 1917 (Bolshevik revolution) “sword and the shield” of the Bolshevik party. 5. Cheka was the forerunner of the KGB. It was reorganized in 1954 and renamed the KGB. B. Purge process a. Complicated i. First thing that would happen when being purged is being arrested 1. No legal rights 2. Automatically guilty 3. No bail or phone call 4. Arrested in the middle of the night often (more intimidating) and hauled off to an unnamed prison so nobody knew where they were hauled off to 5. Held with no contact with outside world 6. Interrogation: a. Cruel methods b. Very physical (torture) c. Psychological in nature to get them to admit to crimes they never did d. Sleep deprivation (get delirious and will do anything for sleep aka confessions) e. Withheld food and water, especially water (desperation= confession) f. Goal: get accused person to confess to a crime (very bogus and vague crimes with no evidence) g. Charges: being an enemy of the working class with no evidence and sometimes accused of being imperialist spies h. Sometimes they would tell the accused “confess or we will go after you family and do the same to them” (if nothing else worked). i. After confession they were put on trial ii. Trial after confession 1. Public 2. After torture 3. These were “show trials” to show population what would happen if they didn’t obey ruling powers 4. Accused would be hauled to witness stand and they would read the confession out loud and broadcasted over radio. They didn’t believe the confessions (smarter than that) but it was to scare them. 5. Sentencing of the accused for their crimes was also broadcasted a. Judge would read a sentence to the accused for their reported crimes b. These sentences were usually death sentences. Usually hanging and sometimes work camps in uranium mines where they got sick with cancer. 6. Took place in all countries in east Europe 7. There were some more famous and ludicrous trials 8. One famous one was Laszlo Rajk a. Sentences to death by hanging b. Show trial, he was from Hungary c. Found guilty of being a “spy and imperialist who planned on restore capitalism” 9. Another famous show trial was Rudolf Slansky a. From Czechoslovakia b. Sentenced to hanging c. Found guilty of “Trotskyite-Titoist-Zionist activities” 10.Judges re-visited these and decided they were killed by accident aka “rehabilitated” 11.Ended in 1953 because Stalin died 12.When they ended, community parties achieved full control over the governments of Eastern Europe individually. a. Used power to control populations b. Sometimes physical c. Sometimes gentler methods like bribery through the stomach aka consumer goods for loyalty d. Communist party members had great access to consumer goods. V. Study Question 2 (II): What do special-access shops tell us about communist leaders’ privileges in Cold War Eastern Europe? A. Special-access stores and open access stores a. One of 2 main types of stores that existed at this time i. Special access: needed to be member of the communist party in good standing. ii. Open access: anybody could use these B. Open access stores a. Open access i. If you went in, the shelves were always nearly empty ii. Goods on the shelves were usually limited in variety and also of very low quality iii. Shows that governments of this time created shortage economies 1. Shortage economy: shortage of basic goods. These were horrifically inefficient economies (command economy and shortage) 2. Produce few goods of low quality 3. Normally heavy industrial goods over consumer goods 4. Basic things like meat and toilet paper and shoes were lacking iv. Stores commonly sold specific items like bread or just veggies v. The economies were absolutely terrible at this time. vi. Very long lines of mostly women C. Special Access shops a. Special access aka Pewex in Poland and Intershop in Germany i. Well stocked shelves ii. Marlboro cigarettes and Levi jeans iii. Very diverse goods and many western goods iv. This proved they weren’t following Marx or Leninist ideas because they wanted equality v. They were continuing the practice of class differences b. Special access restaurants i. Great menus ii. Choices and better quality c. Special access vacations i. Nobody else could leave the country d. Special access hospitals e. There were efforts to overthrow single-party rule i. 2 main efforts: 1. Hungary 1956 a. Hungarian revolution of 1956 b. Center in capital Budapest c. Effort to get rid of single-party rule d. Leader: Imre Nagy (promise Q) e. Imre led a group called the freedom fighters. f. Fall 1956, cruelly crushed via tanks being sent in by SU killing many people and arrested Imre and executed him in 1958. 2. Prague Spring of 1968 a. Capital of Czechislovakia, Prague. b. Leader: Alexander Dubcek c. Suffered same fate: also cruelly squashed d. August 1968 SU tanks rolled into Prague killing many e. Alex was captured but not executed; he had to leave politics and had to live in remote countryside. ii. These were efforts to secure freedom of expression iii. There were others just not as strong iv. After there were horrendous pollution 1. East Euro became one of the most polluted places in the world D. Pollution a. Black Triangle VI. Study Question 3 (III): What happened in the Black Triangle during the Cold War? A. Black Triangle a. Black triangle: region where borders of E. Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. b. This is a very natural resource rich area i. Contained much lignite (brown soft coal, doesn’t require deep mining, early stages of formation, strip mining) ii. A lot of iron ore (important for making machinery iii. Contained much uranium (nuclear power) iv. Heavily exploited c. The area was covered in strip mines d. Communist parties but the lignite to work within the black triangle making it more polluted. Massive factories and such. e. Area got filled with much of the industrial places including electricity production where lignite was burned. f. Electricity was sold and exported to countries in west Europe in exchange for hard currency, especially Austria who didn’t want to pollute its own landscape. i. Cost was enormously high ii. Lignite when it’s burned it produces heavy metals, sulfur dioxides, and soot which produces acid rain and makes it hard to breathe. iii. High cases of lung cancer iv. Mortality rate was 40% higher than other places in E. Europe. v. Forests and wildlife suffered. There are no fish due to acid rain. g. Statues and buildings were degraded due to acid rain h. Other countries were effected by acid rain as well because of the black triangle B. Science and ecology a. Studies on air pollution were withheld from the public and denied that there was anything wrong b. People who tried to talk about it were often jailed c. Some were brave to try and talk about pollution and environment i. Brontosaurus Movement 1. Spoke out against pollution and environment 2. Often jailed ii. Ecology Club 1. In Poland 2. Tried to make people aware of black triangle and pollution 3. Also jailed often d. Generally these people weren’t executed but were jailed. III. Study Question 4 (IV): Discuss the family policy of Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania. A. Family policy of Nicolae Ceausescu a. He was very very very hated b. Leader of a communist domain c. Wanted a large population under his control because he thought that would give him a strong army d. He created a family policy and commanded to into effect i. Mandated that all adult women under 45 were required by law to have at least 5 children. ii. Used secret police of Romania to make sure it happened iii. Ordered police to give the women random gynecological exams iv. These doctors had to report findings to police. This was to see early pregnancy v. Abortion was illegal. If a woman was discovered to have done such, she was jailed for 2 years. This was common. vi. Birth control was illegal vii. Books about reproduction were illegal (state secrets) viii. He outlawed abortion and birth control because he wanted the fetuses to be soldiers. 1. “the fetus is the socialist property of the whole society” ix. Romania had high unemployment and very impoverished x. He and wife controlled all the money and used it to build a luxurious lifestyle for themselves. Never wore same outfit twice. 1. Built enormous palace for themselves which was second largest government building in the world. The first largest is the pentagon. This was expensive and needed much manpower. e. Most couldn’t support their children f. They were offered to send the babies to state run orphanages or barracks. i. Hundreds existed in 70s an 80s ii. 10,000s of orphaned children iii. Lived in horrid circumstances iv. No physical or psychological nourishment g. Policy of microtransfusions i. Created by Nicolae. ii. This was to address male nourishment iii. He wanted orphans to be strong to make army strong iv. Decided to strengthen them with small blood infusions that he ordered doctors to do v. No medical backing vi. Blood used came from soldiers in Romanian army vii. Somehow HIV got into blood supply viii. 1989 is when it became known ix. Response to infected blood supply: continued the microtransfusions x. Declared it is illegal to talk about HIV h. December 1989 i. Public execution ii. Everyone hated him iii. Own people executed him
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