Political Science Chapter 12 Notes
Political Science Chapter 12 Notes POLI 201 001
Popular in American National Government
POLI 201 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for Political Science Chapter 12 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/14/16
Chapter 12 Thursday, April 110:07 AM What are parties? • Parties are organized groups that attempt to influence government by electing their membersto office • The constitutional system of federalism, separation of powers, and bicameralism makes it difficult for one party to gain complete control of the government • Still, parties are critical in making elections and government work Why parties? Collective action in the electoral process • Building campaign organizations requires collective action o Parties get their structure from the electoral process; in every district, there is a party unit o Smaller groups band together to find power within a major party A two-way street: groups • provide parties with resources and parties provide groups with influence over government within a major party • A two-way street: groups provide parties with resources and parties provide groups with influence over government Why parties? Collective choice in government • As permanent coalitions in policy-making processes, parties facilitate action o As individual political actors sharing a label, membersare incentivized to work together o While there are disagreements among those actors, they have more in common than with the other party • Action would be unthinkable in Congress without parties Why parties? Dealing with the problem of ambition • Unchecked ambition is a problem for the political system o Parties channel ambition through a system of career advancement o Parties allow for the internal resolution of conflict through primaries • Because party members share a “brand name”conflict is effectively contained Functions of parties: recruiting candidates a “brand name”conflict is effectively contained Functions of parties: recruiting candidates • Candidates must be found to run for each of the thousands of elective offices at the national, state, and local levels Finding candidates is not easy • as running for office and holding office is difficult • Finding good candidates who can raise the necessary money and who can appeal to the public is even harder Functions of parties: nominating candidates • Nomination is the process by which parties select their candidates to run for office • There are generally two ways to do this: o Convention: a meeting of party leaders to choose nominees o Primary: registered party memberschoose the nominee in an election • Conventions tend to choose insiders, while primaries allow for more outsiders Types of primaries • Closed primary: an election in which only those voters who registered with the party a specified period before election day can participate • Closed primary: an election in which only those voters who registered with the party a specified period before election day can participate • Open primary: an election in which voters can choose on election day itself which party’s primary to vote in • Closed primaries are preferable from the standpoint of party organizers Functions of primaries: getting out to vote (GOTV) Parties: • o Work to register voters o Persuade eligible voters to vote • Parties used to perform these functions by themselves, but today, candidate organizations and outside organizations have significant GOTV operations Functions of parties: facilitating electoral choice • Voters usually do not know much about the candidates for various offices, and they know less about “down -ballot” candidates • Parties provide a “brand name” that can help voters who know nothing about a candidate to make a semi -informed choice Functions of parties: influencing government • Parties build coalitions among make a semi -informed choice Functions of parties: influencing government • Parties build coalitions among aligned interests that develop policy platforms o Democrats are the liberal party, pushing for government intervention in the economy, less social regulation, and expansion of civil rights o Republicans are the conservative party, pushing for laissez-faire economics and greater social regulation • Parties organize government Parties in government • Parties have a profound influence on the organization and day-to-day operations of congress o Majority chooses the speaker of the house o Parties organize the committee system • The president is the leader of his or her party in government and works closely with congressional party leaders Parties in the electorate • Parties are made up of millions of rank-and-file memberswho “identify” with the party label • Once voters form an attachment to one party or the • Parties are made up of millions of rank-and-file memberswho “identify” with the party label • Once voters form an attachment to one party or the other, it tends to be persistent Parties as institutions • National convention: nominates the presidential candidates, sets party platform • National committee: raises money, enhances party imagine, or brand name • Congressional campaign committees: recruit candidates, raise money, provide services • State and local organizations: register voters, recruit candidates, raise money Parties as candidate service providers • Parties provide services to candidate organizations o Money o Voter list and engage in GOTV o Campaign advice o Coordinate expenditures • Parties supplement and support candidate campaigns Party systems • A party system is the constellation of parties that are important at any given moment • It can be thought of as a state • A party system is the constellation of parties that are important at any given moment • It can be thought of as a state of equilibrium in which the two major parties compete with stable coalitions for a period of time • Why two parties? o Winner-take-all elections o No ideological room for more than two o Legal barrier to third parties • Realignments punctuate the movements betweenparty systems The First Party System Thursday, April 14, 2016 10:08 AM • Federalists ○ Washington, Hamilton, Adams ○ Northeasterners, mercantile and business interests • Democratic-‐Republicans ○ Jefferson, Madison ○ Southerners, agrarian interests • The Federalists disappeared after the War of 1812 The Second Party System: Birth of Mass Mobilization Thursday, April 14, 2016 10:10 AM • Democrats ○ Jackson, Van Buren Mobilization Thursday, April 14, 2016 10:10 AM • Democrats ○ Jackson, Van Buren ○ Stronger in the South and the West ○ Opposed national bank and tariffs • Whigs ○ Harrison, Tyler ○ Stronger in the Northeast ○ National bank, tariffs, international improvements The Third Party System: 1860-‐1896 Thursday, April 14, 2016 • Republicans ○ Lincoln, Grant ○ Strong in North and in cities ○ Support national power, commercial interests • Democrats ○ Cleveland Strong in the South and the ○ Midwest ○ Opposed tariffs, supported rural interests • Party Machines as a strategic innovation The Fourth Party System: 1896-‐1932 Thursday, April 14, 2016 • Republicans (dominant party) ○ McKinley, Theodore The Fourth Party System: 1896-‐1932 Thursday, April 14, 2016 • Republicans (dominant party) ○ McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, Hoover ○ Strong in NE and far West ○ National power and business interests • Democrats (incredibly weak) ○ Wilson ○ Strong in the South and Midwest ○ A rural, minority party The Fifth Party System: New Deal Coalition, 1932-‐1968 Thursday, April 14, 2016 • Democrats ○ FDR, Truman, JFK, LBJ ○ Solid South, plus African Americans, Union members, Catholics, and Jews • Republicans ○ Eisenhower Yankee New England and the ○ Midwest The Sixth Party System Thursday, April 14, 2016 • The 1960s split the New Deal Coalition ○ Southern whites left the party over civil rights ○ Catholics and religious conservatives moved to the right ○ Southern whites left the party over civil rights ○ Catholics and religious conservatives moved to the right • Both parties became more ideologically homogeneous and more evenly matched in national elections Third Parties Thursday, April 14, 2016 • Third parties emerge and disappear just as quickly throughout these party systems. • Various barriers: ○ No ideological room for third parties ○ Legal advantages for the two major parties ○ Existing party identification Parties and Democracy Thursday, April 14, 2016 10:37 AM • Parties help make democracy work • They allow for BOTH ○ Popular participation ○ Collective action • They provide ○ Voting cues ○ Organization in government ○ Logistical support for campaigns • The three "spheres" are parties ○ In the electorate ○ As institutions ○ In government ○ Organization in government ○ Logistical support for campaigns • The three "spheres" are parties ○ In the electorate ○ As institutions ○ In government
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'