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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Chapter 11… • Advantages of within subjects design o Requires fewer participants which is good when looking at small populations o Helps keep consistency (instructions or demonstrations) o It saves time o Easy to control for subject differences o Control extraneous variables (participant differences) o Can specifically identify if the independent v. had an effect on the dependent v. o Can track participants over time • Disadvantages of within subjects design o Practical limitations: the study is going to be longer since they are receiving all treatments (get restless, bored, and may just jump to conclusions▯error) o Interference between conditions (effect of previous conditions may have an effect on future conditions) ▯ Be careful in your timing when giving treatment conditions ▯ Order you give your conditions in • 3 things you want to control for in within subjects design o 1-‐ order effects o 2-‐ fatigue effects or any decline in performance as the study goes on o 3-‐ practice effects; any improvement over time as the study continues • Progressive errors are any positive or negative changes in performance as the study goes on o not cause by the independent variable, are cause because the participants are receiving more than one treatment o 2 examples are fatigue effects & practice effects • Counterbalancing technique (balancing) is used to distribute the progressive error across the different treatment conditions • 4 types of counterbalancing techniques o 1-‐ reverse counterbalancing: controlling for progressive errors by giving each treatment condition twice. Usually you give it in one order than you give it in a reverse order. o 2-‐ block randomization: when each set of treatment conditions serves as one block and treatments in each blocks are given in a random order o 3-‐ complete counterbalancing: giving all treatment conditions in every possible sequence ▯ use every sequence used the same amount of times ▯ 2 treatment conditions; gets tricky with more than 3 treatment conditions you need to compute an N factorial ▯ N factorial (3+ t. conditions) multiply backwards until you get to one and it will give you the possible sequences for the amount of treatment conditions o 4-‐ partial counterbalancing: subset of the sequences available ▯ when complete counterbalancing is not possible ▯ use the same number of subsets as you have participants • 2 techniques that will help choose the possible sequences o 1-‐ randomized partial counterbalancing: randomly distributing the same amount of sequences to each participant; N factorial▯ 10 part. and give one possible sequence to each participants o 2-‐ Latin square to help us with our counterbalancing; a matrix of sequences where each treatment appears once in any order ▯ each row represents a different subset of sequences ▯ watch out for the same sequences in different rows EXAM 2^
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