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Week 3 Notes VEN 003

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

Week 3 Notes VEN 003 Ven 3

AlexandraRita Notetaker
GPA 4.2

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About this Document

Week 3 notes for intro to wine making. Tuesday and Thursday's lecture. New notes uploaded on thursdays.
Intro to wine making
Jean-Jacques Lambart
Class Notes
VEN003, VEN 003, Intro to wine making, Wine, notes, popular, ucdavis, UCD, University of California Davis
25 ?




Popular in Intro to wine making

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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ven 3 at University of California - Davis taught by Jean-Jacques Lambart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Intro to wine making in Art History at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 04/14/16
      th Day  5  (April  12 )  Making  Table  Wine     THE  DECISION  TO  HARVEST   •    Is  the  fruit  ready?    •    Vineyard  sampling   –  Sugar   •    Refractometer,  hydrometer   –  Acidity   •    TitraPon   –  Flavor   •    Human  being     REFRACTOMETER   •   For  measuring  sugar  in  grape  juice     Hydrometer   •   For  measuring  sugar  in  grape  juice     THE  DECISION  TO  HARVEST   •    Style  of  wine?   •    Alcohol  concentration?   •   FORMULA:  0.55  x  °Brix     •   16  -­‐  25.5°Brix   •   9  -­‐  14%  alcohol     (Legal  lower  limit  is  7%:  Legal  but  yucky)     BERRY  RIPENING:   •   Sugar  increases,  Acid  decreases     THE  DECISION  TO  HARVEST   •    Sugar  must  be  high  enough   •    Acid  must  not  be  too  low   •    Varietal  flavor  should  be  optimal   àTaste  the  fruit!     THE  DECISION  TO  HARVEST   Red  wines                      20  -­‐  24°Brix     White  wines              19-­‐23   Blush  wines                  19-­‐23   Sparkling  wines          18-­‐20     SORTING   •    WHY?   –    To  remove  all  “MOG”  (Maner  Other  than  Grapes)     –  To  remove  over-­‐ripe  or  unripe  berries   •    HOW?   –  Sorting  Tables  (whole  clusters)     –  Optical  sorting  of  individual  berries     CRUSHING   •    WHY?   –  To  break  the  berries  open   –    To  let  the  yeast  get  at  the  juice   •    HOW?   –  Crusher  /  De-­‐Stemmer  –  Crush  produces  “MUST”     CRUSHING  CHOICES   •    Crushing  and  destemming     •    Destemming  only   -­‐Ferment  whole  berries   •    Whole  clusters   -­‐Direct  to  press  (whites)   -­‐Carbonic  maceraPon  (reds)   •    MUST  =  product  of  crushing     -­‐  80%  juice,  16%  skins,  4%  seeds     WINEMAKING  DECISIONS   •    DESTEM?   •    WHOLE  BERRIES  OR  CLUSTERS?   2    •    MIXTURE?     SO2  ADDITION     Why?   •    Antimicrobial   –  Kills  wild  yeast  and  other  contaminants   •    Antioxidant   –  Prevents  browning  caused  by  polyphenol  oxidase  (PPO)   •  “Contains  sulfites”   •  Required  on  the  label  by  law  if   -­‐SO2  >10  ppm   •  Wine  still  contains  sulfites  even  if  SO2  is  not  added   •    SO2  is  also  a  natural  product  of  fermentation     ORGANIC  WINES  AND  SO2   •    USA  RULES:  SO2  allowed  in  wine  labeled  “made  with  organic  grapes”  if   total  sulfite  concentration  does  not  exceed  100  ppm   •    EUROPEAN  RULES:  White  &  Rosé  Wine  labeled  ORGANIC:  150  ppm   (Conventional:  200  ppm)  Red  Wine  labeled  ORGANIC:  100  ppm   (Conventional:  150  ppm)     MUST  ADJUSTMENTS   •   Sugar  Enrichment   -­‐Chaptalization   •  Sugar  addition  to  raise  potential  alcohol  of  wine   -­‐  Not  Legal  in  California   •  Juice  Concentrate  Is  Legal  in  California   •    Acid  Adjustment   -­‐Common  in  California  and  other  warm  areas  where  acid  is  low  at   harvest   •    Add  Tartaric  acid             3       •   When?   •   Before  fermentation  (whites  or  rosés)   •    After  or  during  fermentation  (reds  or  ports)   •   Why?   •   To  SEPARATE  juice  or  wine  from  skins  and  seeds   •   How?   •   Squeezing  in  various  ways     PRESSING  Squeeze  in  stages:   1.  Free  Run  –  just  gravity   •  Highest  quality     •  Lowest  in  tannins   »  Less  bitter     »  Less  astringent     PRESSING   Squeeze  in  stages:   1.    Free  Run  –  just  gravity   2.    Press  Fractions    »  Increasingly  tannic   3.  Hard  Press   »  Very  tannic   »  (quality  will  drop)     PRESSING   •   Juice/wine  yield:   •   140  -­‐  190  gallons/ton  –  More  for  reds  than  whites  because:   •   Reds  are  pressed  after  fermentation     •   It’s  OK  for  reds  to  be  more  tannic,  so  they  can  be  pressed  harder           4         TYPES  OF  PRESSES   1.    CONTINUOUS  PRESS   •  Fast,  high  volume  fruit  presses                                                  MEMBRANE  PRESS   •  Lower  quality   –  Higher  tannins   •  Low  priced  wines   •  Large  wineries   2.    BASKET  PRESS   •    Oldest,  traditional  presses   •    Uses  a  piston  and  basket   3.    MEMBRANE  PRESS   •    Also  called  Bladder  Press   •    Widely  used   àGentler,  so  lower  tannins     àPremium  wineries     SETTLING   •    Allow  solids  to  settle  to  bottom  of  tank     •    Then  separate  juice  from  solids   –  Pumping  (“racking”)     –  Filtration                            }    Large   –  Centrifugation        }    Wineries   Large  Centrifuge:  An  Alternative  to  Settling  and  Racking     SOME  TERMS   •    RACKING   –    Transfer  of  juice  or  wine  away  from  settled  solid   material   •    LEES   –  Solid  material  in  juice/wine     -­‐Grape  solids   -­‐Yeast  solids     -­‐Chemical  precipitates   5         FERMENTATION   •    Inoculate?   •    CULTURED  DRY  YEAST  at  1  to  2%  by  volume     •    OR  USE  MUST  from  an  active  fermentation   •    “Natural”  fermentation?   -­‐  More  common  in  small  wineries     FERMENTATION  VESSELS   –    Wooden  tanks   –    Lined  concrete  tanks   –    Plastic  boxes   –    Stainless  steel▯   –    Usually  closed  containers,  but  sometimes  open  top  for  reds     Heat  from  Fermentation     Example:     22°B  juice  at  70°F   22°B  x  2.3  =  50.6°F  rise   50.6°F  +  70°F  =  120°F   TOO  HOT!   HAVE  TO  KEEP  IT   UNDER  100°F  !!!!           REALITY:  SOME  HEAT  IS  LOST   •    Calculation  assumes  all  heat  stays  inside  fermention,  none  lost   •    But  some  heat  IS  lost   •    HOW  MUCH  is  lost  depends  on:   à  Size  and  shape  of  fermentation  vessel  AND   à  Artificial  cooling   6         MANAGING  TEMPERATURE   –  Why?   •  Keep  yeast  healthy   •  Control  wine  flavor     –  How?   •  Small  fermentation  vessels   •  Refrigeration  jackets   •  Heat  exchangers   •    Small  fermentation  vessels   –  Barrel  fermentation   –  Not  practical  for  large  volume  production   •    Small  fermentation  vessels   •    Refrigeration  jackets   –    Common  in  warm  places  like  California,  Chile,  Australia,  Southern   France,  etc.   •    Heat  exchangers   –    Common  in  cool  places  like  Northern  Europe   –  Used  for  heating  must     –  But  also  used  to  cool     WHERE  DOES  THE  CO2  GO?     C6H12O6  à  2  CH3CH2OH  +  2CO2   –    Must  let  CO2  OUT  without  letting  AIR  IN   –  How?  Fermentation  Lock     FERMENTATION  TIME   •    WHITES  10  to  30  days     –  Cooler  temperature   –  Less  nutrients   •    REDS  4  to  12  days   –  Warmer  temperature   –    More  nutrients  for  yeast  from  skins  and  seeds     7         FERMENTATION  TIME   •    Some  varieties  ferment  faster    –  Better  source  of  nutrients  for  yeast?     STUCK  FERMENTATIONS     •    Stops  before  sugar  is  used  up   •    Undesirable  because  wine  will  be:   –    Sweet   –  Microbiologically  unstable     Normal  Fermentation                                  Stuck  Fermentation   Fermentation  Restarted                         8         MALOLACTIC  FERMENTATION  (MLF)   •    Loss  of  malic  acid  and  creation  of  lactic  acid  and  CO2   •    Often  spontaneous  in  wood     –  Barrel  fermented  Chardonnay   –  Red  wines  aged  in  wood   •    But  usually  inoculated  with  ML  bacteria   –    Either  along  with  the  yeast,  or  later     MALOLACTIC  FERMENTATION   •    BENEFITS   •  Buttery  flavor  (diacetyl)     •  Microbiological  stability   •  Lower  acidity  (not  so  important  in  California)     End  of  Notes  Day  5                                       9         th Day  6  (April  14 )  Making  Table  Wine  Part  2     Invention  of  the  Barrel   nd •   2  Century  AD   -­‐   Gallo-­‐Roman  relief  depicting  a  river  boat  transporting  wine   barrels,  an  invention  of  the  Gauls  that  came  into  widespread   use  during  the  2nd  century.     BARREL  AGING   •    Adds  flavors:    –    Vanilla   –    Spicy   –  Smoky  (if  toasted*)   •    Usually  oak  but  sometimes  chestnut   •    Traditional  for  red  wines     •    6  months  to  2  years   •    Not  for  wines  intended  to  have  fruity  flavors     •    Not  for  inexpensive  wines   •    Flavor  contribution  from  barrel  declines  with  repeated  use   •    A  barrel  is  typically  used  for  5  years   •    Wineries  typically  use  a  mixture  of  old  and  new  barrels   Barrel  Parts                       10     BARREL  AGING  IS  EXPENSIVE   •    Barrels  are  expensive   •    French  oak  ∼$800  each   •    American  oak  ∼$200  each   •    Space  for  barrel  storage  is  expensive   •    Handling  barrels  is  expensive   –    A  medium  sized  winery  may  spend  several  million  dollars  each  year   on  new  barrels!     OAK  ALTERNATIVES   •  Oak  chips     •  Inner  staves   •    Inexpensive   •  Allow  oak  influence  in  large  tanks     TOPPING  BARRELS   •    Some  wine  is  lost  due  to  evaporation     •    High  humidity  will  minimize  loss   •    Wine  replaced  to  minimize  head  space     •    Top  barrels  periodically     DURING  BARREL  AGING   •    Topping   •    Racking  from  barrel  to  barrel     •    SO2  addition     FINING   •    Why?   –  To  improve  clarity  of  wine   •  Helps  to  know  cause  of  cloudiness  (e.g.,  proteins,  polysaccharides,  metals)   –  To  remove  some  tannins   •    How?   –  Add  something  that  reacts  with  or  adsorbs   substance  to  be  removed     –  Falls  to  bottom  as  precipitate   11     Finning   •    What?   –  Bentonite  (a  clay)   –  Removes  proteins     –  Enzymes   –  Remove  polysaccharides   –  Egg  white,  gelatin,  casein,  isinglass     –  Remove  tannins   •    Downside   •  May  remove  “complexity”   •  May  remove  or  change  flavors   •  Minimize  fining  if  you  don’t  care  about  absolute  clarity  or  you  are  willing   to  rack  barrels  more     TARTRATE  STABILIZATION   •    Why?   –  To  prevent  formation  of  KHT  crystals  in  bottle   –  KHT  =  Potassium  acid  tartrate  (or  potassium  bitartrate,  ‘cream  of  ta rtar’)   –  For  appearance  only  (the  crystals  look  like  broken  glass)   •    KHT  is  very  insoluble  in  alcohol   •    Precipitates  out  when  wine  is  chilled  in   refrigerator  (whites)   •    So  accelerate  by  chilling  in  winery:  COLD  STABILIZATION   •  Below  32°  for  several  weeks   •  Then  filter  out  crystals     AFTER  COLD  STABILIZATION,  KHT  CRYSTALS  ARE  EASILY  REMOVED  BY   FILTRATION     •    Ion  exchange   –  Alternative  to  cold  stabilization   •    K  ions  replaced  by  Na  or  H  –  Tartrate  then  more  soluble   •    Favored  by  larger  wineries   •    Faster,  cheaper   •    But  adds  Na  or  increases  acidity   12     WINE  FILTRATION   •    Why?     -­‐Clarification     -­‐Stabilization   •    How?     -­‐Diatomaceous  earth     -­‐Sterile  membrane  filter     FILTRATION   •    Diatomaceous  earth     –  Removes  particulate  matter   •    Sterile  membrane  filter    –  Removes  microbes   •    Important  if    »  Residual  sugar   »  Wine  has  not  undergone  malolactic  fermentati on  (MLF)   •    Excessive  filtration  can  reduce  complexity   •    Can  avoid  if:     -­‐Completely  dry   -­‐Completed  MLF   -­‐Racked  enough  to  be  clear   -­‐Large  producers  always  filter     BLENDING   •    Combine  wine  lots  from     -­‐Different  vineyards   -­‐Different  varieties   -­‐Different  maturities     -­‐Different  treatments   •    Usually  tested  on  small  scale  first   •    The  ultimate  winemaking  decision!           13     BOTTLING   •    Transfer  wine  to  holding  tank   •    Add  SO2   •    Bottling  line   -­‐Bottles  washed   -­‐May  be  flushed  with  N2   -­‐Filled  and  corked  quickly   •    Bottling  line   –  Must  be  clean   –  May  be  separate  room   •    Bottles  labeled  and  cased   •    Bottle  aged  (and  monitored)     •    OR  aged  before  labeling     Making  Red  Wine   •   About  9-­‐18  Months                           Red  Fermentation  Issues   •    Extraction  of  phenols  (tannins  &  color)    –  Requires  alcohol   •    Warm  fermentation  (85°F)   •    Fast  fermentation  (4-­‐7  days)   •    Vigorous  carbon  dioxide  evolution    –  Protects  wine  from  air   14     Maceration   Extraction  of  Skins  and  Seed   •    Tannins  and  other  phenols  are  extracted  –    Color  (anthocyanins)   –    Seed  and  skin  tannins   –    Fruit  aromas  (some)   •    Phenols  are  antioxidants   –    Necessary  for  preservation  during  aging   –    High  levels  needed  for  long  aging   •    Astringency  may  be  too  high  for  immediate  consumption   –    Levels  decrease  during  aging     Red  Maceration  Parameters   Skin/Seed  Contact  Time   •    Rosé:  12-­‐24  hours  contact  time   •    Light  Reds  (picnic  wine):  about  4  days  maceration   •    High  Priced  Red  Wines:  10-­‐30  days   •    Extended  maceration  does  not  increase  color  (peaks  after  3-­‐5  days),  but   does  increase  tannins     Cap  Management  Manipulation  of  skins  and  seeds  (pomace)   •    Carbon  dioxide  bubbles  lit  the  pomace  to  the  top     •    “Punchdown”   –    Push  down  on  the  cap  to  re-­‐mix  it  with  the  fermenting  must   •    “Pumpover”   –    Pump  liquid  from  bottom  of  tank  and  spray  over  cap  –    Some   physical  mixing  if  a  heavy  spray  is  used   •    Oxygen  inclusion  if  needed     ‘Pump  Over’  SchemaLc   •    Must/Wine  is  pumped  from  racking  valve     •    Sprayed  over  cap  in  tank           15     Carbonic  Maceration  Fruity  Flavors   •    Grapes  are  not  crushed  first   •    Whole  berries  are  sealed  in  a  "Fermentor"  for  8-­‐10   days  under  CO2   •    Grape  enzymes  convert  some  sugar  to  alcohol   •    THEN  crush,  press  and  ferment  remaining  sugar   •    Wine  should  be  consumed  soon  –  does  not  age  well   •    Produces  a  fruity,  low  tannin,  light  red  wine   •    Beaujolais  nouveau  is  made  this  way   –    Made  and  released  just  a  few  weeks  a fter  harvest  in  fall     Beaujolais  Nouveau   •    Made  from  Gamay  noir  grape   •    Carbonic  maceration   •    Produced  in  Beaujolais  region  of  France   •    Released  once  a  year,  third  Thursday  in  November   •    Promoted  in  US  for  Thanksgiving     Making  White  Wine   •   About  4-­‐9  months  total                                 16     Making  White  Wines     Prevent  Tannin  Extraction   •    Add  pectic  enzymes   –    break  down  fruit  tissue  and  release  more  juice   •    Prevent  browning   –  caused  by  oxidation  of  phenols     –    Keep  juice  cold,  protect  from  air   •    Must  is  pressed  right  away   –    Minimize  bitterness,  astringency  (phenolics)     –    “Direct  to  press”  without  crushing  first   •    Cool  fermentation  temperature  –    Temp  controlled  (50-­‐70°F)   –    Maximizes  fruity  flavors   –    Long  fermentation,  ~10-­‐30  days     Barrel  Fermentation  Oak  Flavor  Desirable  in  US   •    Some  white  wines  (Chardonnay)  are  barrel  fermented   •    Undergo  Malolactic  Fermentation  (MLF)  at  same  time   •    Characteristic  Flavors:  Vanilla  (oak),  Butter  (ML  bacteria)   •    Barrels  are  small,  heat  dissipates,  keeps  temperature  low   •    After  fermentation,  leave  in  the  barrels  up  to  6  months  (“sur  lees”  or  “sur   lie”  aging)   •    Only  for  expensive  wines:  barrels  and  labor  are  costly     Sur  Lees  (Sur  Lie)  Aging   •    Lees  (lies  in  French)  =  dead  yeast   •    Allow  barrel  fermented  wine  to  remain  in   barrels  after  fermentation  is  finished   •    Stir  periodically   •    Contact  with  dead  yeast  cells  gives  flavor  and  texture  differences               17     Making  Blush  or  Rosé  Wines     Minimal  color  extraction   •    “White”  wines  made  from  red  grapes     –    e.g.,  White  Zinfandel   •    Produced  exactly  like  fruity  white  wines  (but  from  red  grapes)   •    Fermented  cool   •    No  wood  contact  (barrels,  chips),  No  aging   •    Some  residual  sugar;  should  be  filtered  to  prevent  fermentation  in  the   bottle  (BAD!)   •    Sometimes  blend  in  red  wine  at  end  to  adjust  color     Sweet  White  Wines   •    Inexpensive  Chardonnay   •    Often  Riesling,  Gewürtztraminer,   Chenin  blanc   •    HOW?   –  Arrest  fermentation  with  chilling  or  sterile  filtration   –  Add  sterile  juice  concentrate   •    Sauternes  (Bordeaux)  -­‐  noble  rot   •    Tokay  (Hungary)  -­‐  noble  rot   •    Vouvray  (Loire)         Less  Vs.  More   Expensive  Wines                   End  of  Notes  day  6   18                 19  


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