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Poli Sci 220 week 3 notes

by: Christina Roualet

Poli Sci 220 week 3 notes Poli Sci 220

Christina Roualet
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These notes are from the lectures and discussion of week three
American Government and Politics
Brian Harris
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Roualet on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Poli Sci 220 at Northwestern University taught by Brian Harris in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see American Government and Politics in Political Science at Northwestern University.

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Date Created: 04/14/16
For tests: look at definitions in books, and their context Read questions at end of each chapter; pretty broad, but should be able to answer Anything in the book is fair game Congress and Legislative Process 3 main questions history/what does congress do how do we explain the behaviors of members of Congress How Representative is Congress History of Congress First legislature in 13 century Federalists 37/38 (Madison wanted a strong legislature) House met April 1, 1789 53 Federalists, 10 anti-federalists Henry clay in 1810; senate in 1816 1816 Compensation act Changed salary of Congress Made it possible for people who weren’t already wealthy to serve in Congress Beginning of careerism in Congress 1800s committee de-centralization 1880-1890 Australian ballot secret ballot – changed the way people voted because it was in secret no social pressures th 1913: 17 amendment direct election of senators, no longer chosen by state legislatures 1947: legislative reorganization Act made committees less powerful reduced number of committees made a few that were more powerful general trend towards de-centralization of power multiple fiefdoms committee structure increased incentive to run for office constitution and the legislative branch article 1 creates a bicameral legislative branch upper house is senate in which each state receives two representatives lower house is house of reps which is apportioned by population powers enumerated explicitly written in constitution; i.e. power to tax, set up system of courts implied things that the constitution suggests that the Congress can do Congress can try i.e. eminent domain, necessary and proper enabling enables Congress to pass legislature gives congress power to do what it was set up to do necessary and proper congress has power to make all laws that are necessary and proper senate vs the house size 435 in house 100 senators in the senate qualifications house 25 years of age citizenship for at least 7 years residency in district for 1 year term of service – 2 years I member per 550,000 people How many members of the House face election each time? Senate 30 years of age 9 years of citizenship resident requirement in state – 1 year term – 6 years 2 seats per state in Senate How many Senators face election each time? 1/3 Congress and constituency House of representatives Closer to the voters More reflective of voter preferences More answerable to constituents Senate More remote to voters Allows for political stability and policy continuity Less responsive to temporal changes in popular sentiment Can act as a dispassionate counterweight to the more popular and radical house Legislative role differences Senate More deliberative Less structured House of reps More centralized and organized More routine and structures Germaneness If you add an amendment to a bill, it must be relevant to bill in its Entirety Key differences House Initiative revenue bills 2-year term 435 formal specialist tax policy Senate advise and consent 6-year term 100 relaxed generalist foreign policy Questions to Consider What does Congress do? Holds the purse strings (all tax bills begin in the house of representatives Declares war Passes laws (with presidential assent of over presidential veto) Oversight of the presidency, the bureaucratic agencies, and foreign policy Impeaches and tries presidents and federal judges (including Supreme court justices) Things only one chamber does Senate ratifies treaties, confirms nominees (advise and consent) House of Representatives decides contested presidential elections, passes articles of Impeachment How do we explain the behavior of members of Congress? Ideology (values and beliefs) Prestige Good public policy Personal gain Reelection (are all other secondary to this one?) How representative is Congress? Districting – what are the motives behind so-called “Gerrymandering” Does the house need to be enlarged? What does Congress do? Passing Legislation 1. Bill is introduced (anyone can recommend a bill, but it must be sponsored by a member of Congress a. Over 9,000 bills are proposed and fewer than 5 to 10% are enacted 2. Bill is assigned a number and referred to a committee that would have jurisdiction over the subject matter of the bill a. Hearings (are all sides equally represented at hearings? No.) b. Most bills “die” in committee c. If they do not die, they are “marked up” i. Edited by the committee’s members who then vote on the bill and report it out of committee 3. Getting the Bill to the Floor of the Chamber The house Normal rule: bill reported out of committee with a written report (source of information for members not in the committee Two committees involved The substantive committee which deals with the subject of the bill The rules committee – the substantive committee must ask for a “rule” A rule is resolution that specifies how long a bill can be debated and regulates certain procedures for amendments Open rule: permits amendments from the House floor Restricted rule: only certain amendments specified by the rule Closed rule: no amendments considered Alternative route: discharge petition A bill may be brought out to the house floor without a committee approval if a majority of members (218) sign a petition to do so The Senate Normal rule: no rules committee, but a unanimous consent agreement setting up length of debate and whether amendments will be considered The filibuster: if there is no unanimous consent agreement The filibuster (senate only) One person can filibuster a bill – you can speak so long that you can block all other action from being taken until you give up the floor Originally, you cannot stop speaking, you cannot sit down Since the 1970s, senate has changed its rules: created the “procedural filibuster” This meant that senators could simply point out that the majority lacked 60 votes to halt the filibuster. That was enough to block action on any bill To break a filibuster 60 votes or (3/5 of the senate) if you have these votes, you can invoke CLOTURE. This is a rule that allows no more than 30 hours of debate before there is a vote There is no filibuster option in the House of Representatives (eliminated in 1890s) 4. Debate and vote a series of votes Killer Amendments – opponents may try to add amendments that make support untenable 5. Resolving differences Between the two chambers The conference committee With the president The veto The veto threat Some take away points 1. Long multi state process. Why would framers want this? 2. Numerous opportunities to stall or kill legislation (known as veto points) 3. Legislating is messy (“sausage making”) a. Getting anything done requires compromise i. In the House and in the Senate ii. Across the two legislative chambers iii. With the president Oversight of the presidency, the bureaucratic agencies and foreign policy Oversight: tracking and guiding government behavior – involves gathering information and monitoring various entities 1. Gathering information a. Committee – hold hearings (they have subpoena power) i. Who might be a witness? b. 3 party reports i. congressional budget office (CBO) ii. government accounting office (GAO) iii. congressional research service (CRS) 2. who is being overseen? a. Private groups or citizens i. Red scare b. Bureaucracy/ executive branch c. Members of congress (ethics reviews) Confirm nominees Senate only Advise and consent language in Article 1 How does the senate decide to approve a judicial nominee, cabinet member, or other presidential appointment? What kind of vote is required? Majority vote No requirement that the senate confirm anyone Strategy of keeping an empty position Potential cost? Congressional organization and behavior How do we explain behaviors of members of Congress Ideology (values and beliefs) Prestige Good public policy Personal gain Reelection (are all other goals secondary to this one?) Organization Congress as the authority to set its own rules 1. Article 1 section 2, “the house or reps shall choose their Speaker and other Officers” 2. Article 1, section 5 “each house may determine the rules of its proceedings Where to the procedures we see come from? Consider two alternatives 1. A democratically controlled house could vote to only give democrats money and staff, only put democrats in all committees, and refuse to recognize republicans during floor debates. Why doesn’t this happen? Undemocratic, re-election 2. The house could choose to divide every committee equally even though republicans are the minority. Why doesn’t this happen? Majority should have some extra power General principle Congress is organized to solve a lot of costs associated with the problems of acting as a large body of individual members 1. House of representatives has 435 members 2. The senate as 100 members Types of costs 1. Information needs to be gathered, analyzed, and disseminated 2. Conflicts among members, between chambers and between the legislature and the executive must be resolved 3. Voting needs to be coordinated 4. Common or public policy needs to be crafted and delivered – incentives to act in individual interest, especially when that may harm the public (the tragedy of the commons), must be overcome Different organizational schemes to lessen costs Political party membership 1. Speaker of the house a. Voted by members – leader of the majority party in the house b. Agenda setter – controls what bills come to the floor c. Strongest when the majority party is unified i. Strong leader can impose fairly high conformity costs to achieve a common agenda but when the party is unified, these costs are less noticeable 2. Whip system a. Increases communication among the party membership i. The whip manages their representative part’s legislative program on the House floor 1. Speaker of the house 2. Majority leader in the house 3. Minority leader in the house 4. House majority whip 5. House minority 6. Senate majority leader 7. Senate minority leader 8. Senate majority whip 9. Senate minority whip 3. Caucuses a. Democratic party caucus, republican party caucus, congressional block caucus, caucus for women’s issues regional coalitions Committee system Subgroups in congress that organize around an idea Different kinds of committees 1. Standing committees (always existing) a. Judiciary b. Foreign relations 2. Special or select committees (deal with a specific issue) 3. Joint committees (both chambers oversee the Library of Congress for example 4. Ad hoc committees (handle sensitive issues, usually about security) 5. Conference committees (resolves differences between the two chambers on a bill) Procedures Why is congress organized this way? Collective bodies like congress face Collective Action Costs and these three institutions (parties, committees and Procedures) help to lessen these costs Types of costs 1. Information uncertainty (transaction costs) 2. Coordination costs (435 house members, 100 senators How representative is Congress? Congress vs. US Society 90% of house is either protestant or catholic 81% of senate is protestant or catholic Congress: 81% is male house is 80% white Senate is 94% white Fenno’s paradox People generally like their own member of Congress, but hate Congress in general Your member of Congress is the only one that you have some degree of domain over Polarization Congress is as polarized as its been in over 50 years Senate is also very polarized Congress = ineffectual? Largely true 4/13 The US Presidency Format of exam: Work in progress, but won’t just be multiple choice Definitions and context What are the war powers? What is one instance in which the President instated them over the past 150 years? Largely short answer History/ what does Congress do? How the purse strings (all tax bills begin in the House of Representatives) Declares war Passes laws (with presidential assent or over presidential veto) Oversight of the presidency, the bureaucratic agencies, and foreign policy Impeaches and tries presidents and federal judges (including Supreme Court Justices) Things only one chamber does Senate ratifies treaties, confirms nominees (advise and consent), conducts impeachment trials House initiates revenue bills, decides contested presidential elections, passes articles of impeachment How do we explain the behavior of members of Congress? Ideology (values and beliefs) Prestige Good public policy Personal gain Reelection (are all of the other goals secondary to this one?? How representative is Congress? Districting – what are the motives behind so-called “Gerrymandering” Demographic congruity between people and representatives Substantive vs Descriptive representation Today’s key points Requirements o the president Expectations vs roles Presidential powers Sources of presidential powers Article II’s ambiguity President Formal qualifications as outlined in constitution NATURAL BORN Citizen (someone who is a citizen by birth) At least 35 years old Be a resident of the US for at least 14 years prior to the election No one under 40 has ever been elected President. Most presidents have been in fifties or sixties when elected Youngest president vs oldest elected All presidents have been been male and white except Barack All but two have been married, only one divorced 2/3rds have had legal training Expectations Game Good presidents: Lincoln, FDR, Washington, Truman, John F Kennedy, Eisenhower Why? Had to deal with intense situations History and hardship Had to deal with party divides and cleavages Policy successes Set precedents that are still used today Values War Appearance and Personality Qualities that we like in a President: Tall Good speakers Communicate well Relatable Authenticity Experience in Political or Legal world Smart - Know enough to do the job Well educated Religious component? Married with kids We value military experience Experienced, but has no track record Relatable, but much smarter than we are How does any one person fulfill these expectations? A candidate can’t win – public always disappointed Expectations will never be met Roles of the president (memorize) Chief executive Chief diplomat Chief legislator Chief citizen Commander and chief Chief of state Chief administrator Chief of party 1.Chief of state Performs ceremonial duties Stands as symbol of US Represents the nation to the rest of the world Receiving foreign leaders 2.Chief diplomat Directs foreign policy Us representative in relations with other nations Writes treaties, grants recognition to new governments 3.Chief executive Carries out and enforces laws of the US Administers government programs Supervises government employees Names top-ranking officers Grants reprieves, pardons, and amnesty 4.Commander in chief explicitly mentioned in constitution Heads all armed forces Determines military strategies Makes treaties 5.Chief politician Heads political party Executes party’s platform Provides “coattail advantage” 6.Chief legislator Informs Congress about the condition of the country (state of the union) Proposes Legislation Reports to Congress Urges passage of needed bills Compensation $400,000 per year salary fixed by congress but cannot be increased /decreased during term $193,000 per year (lifetime pension) live in White House (132 rooms) with staff Suite of offices with staff Yacht, fleet of automobiles Protection from secret service Funds for travel, office, entertainment Air Force One, Marine One Camp David – resort hideaway Finest medical, dental, health care Total cost to run vast operations of white house including: Air force one, salaries of administrative employees, domestic, and security staff and expenses for supplies, operation costs, executive offices In 2012 ~ $1.5 Billion Vice president Duties: preside over Senate – only duty specified in Constitution Help decide if president is disabled and assume office of President if necessary Often chosen to help President win the election – “balance the ticket” Assumes responsibilities as the president sees fit Qualifications for VP Same as president Salary: $192,600 Other compensation 10,000 expense account live in house at naval observatory access to air force 2 limousine service secret service protection presidential succession and vice presidency 2th amendment provides for succession vice president speaker of house president pro tempore of senate secretary of state each of the other heads of the cabinet departments in order of precedence executive office of the president complex of several separate agencies staffed by the presidents most trusted advisers and assistants (white house slang = EOP) White house office Key personal and political staff Chief of staff In charge of managing staff Press secretary Liaison to media Assistants Various things Chief of staff to first lady Press secretary for first lady Over 400 people work in White House Office (WHO) Support staff National security council Advise in all domestic, foreign, and military matters Vice president secretary of state, Defense (by statute) Chairman of the joint chiefs, NSA, Chief of Staff, Attorney general, secretary of homeland security, treasury Office of management and budget Prepare federal budget Council of economic advisors Inform and advise President on nation’s economy Powers of the President Executive powers Military powers Legislative powers Diplomatic powers Judicial powers 1.Executive powers Those powers the president has and uses to make sure that federal law is carried out Executing the law, appointing power, ordinance power, removal power Executing the law Article II, section 1, Clause 8 “I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States” Ordinance power The president has the power to issue executive orders Also known as a proclamation, an executive order is a directive handed down directly from a president or governor in the executive branch of government without any input from the legislative or judicial branches Can only be given to federal or state agencies, not to citizens But… citizens can be impacted by them Executive powers TEST QUESTION Where are the powers of the Executive Branch Article II of the United States Constitution What does it say about executive order? Why, nothing at all of course Implied power It is argued that the power to issue executive orders is implied in the following statements in the Constitution Executive means having the power to put plans, actions, or laws into effect Power Check The constitutionality of an executive order can be challenged in the courts If it is found unconstitutional, it can be repealed Youngstown State & Tube vs. Sawyer Congress can also check the power of an executive order by creating legislation that would reverse or limit the executive order Problem? President can just veto it Executive Order 9066 FDR Essentially created Japanese internment camps Create military areas, that eventually just became prisons for Japanese people Executive order 9981 Harry Truman Integrated the military Required equal treatment and opportunity for all in the armed services Executive Order 13228 George W. Bush Following 9/11 created Department of Homeland Security which would help secure the US from terrorist threats and/or attacks The appointing power The president has the power to appoint nearly three million federal civilian employees and most of the top-ranking officials The removal power Can remove anyone from office who he has appointed Only restriction is supreme court justices for Vice President Main three purposes for removal 2.Legislative power POTUS possesses the power to SUBMIT or RECOMMEND ideas to congress Gives state of union address each year, presents ideas for new legislation Calls special congress Veto power Veto power When a bill comes to President, can do 4 things 1. Sign and pass 2. Veto 3. Congress in session - Not touch the bill, will pass in 10 days 4. Congress not in session – not touch bill, will NOT pass 3.Diplomatic Power The president’s diplomatic powers are among the most powerful Power to make treaties Formal agreements between two or more sovereign states President usually negotiates treaties through secretary of state Senate must give approval for these international agreements with 2/3 vote 4.Military power During war time, can make critical decisions necessary as commander and chief Can send troops into combat without approval from Congress War Powers Act of 1973 Can use troops for domestic peace within US Overtime, the President has taken more power over the military, Congress has not stepped up 5.Judicial powers According to article II, section 2, clause 1, president has power to Pardon – legal forgiveness for a crime Amnesty – political forgiveness, bringing citizens into compliance with a law is more important than punishing them for past offenses Reprieve – postponing a sentence (temporary) (usually death penalty) Commutation – reduction of a sentence Source of authority? Article I vs articEXAM QUESTION Article 2 is short and vague, article 1 is long Article 2 is brief, broad, and ambiguous Vesting clause “The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of America” ambiguity? No definition of Executive power wanted to be expansive, not limit the power flexible power The essence of the thing You don’t mess with too many details If you limit executive powers, no longer executive powers Unitary Executive Theory The person and the power are one – the president creates or manages power themselves President basically says that they have the power Other ambiguities “president will faithfully execute the office” - not the laws. What does this mean? Not just there to execute but to do something else What does it mean to execute? Jefferson (prerogative power – president can do whatever is within his prerogative to do, however must be closely tied to Constitution) Lincoln (required powers – oath of office didn’t give him the power, but required him to do things. Don’t derive my power from oath of office, but from institution) Treaties – give information, take care, impeachment Discussion 4/14 Congress and the Presidency Neustadt thinks Presidential power is about persuasion and that the president can never live up to the expectations of the public Too many competing forces A lot of bartering power Can’t get everything done President has the power to persuade Gets people in Washington to do what he wants How? Prestige of the office, prestige of the public eye, professional reputation Is the President a Clerk or a leader? If you look at formal powers of president, he is a clerk Responsibilities aren’t very grand, just organizes people However, we should also want our president to be a leader Should elect someone with good leadership qualities Reputation + prestige = power Power = persuasion What makes a President successful? His ability to persuade What would Neustadt say about Clinton as Presidential candidate Has some prestige in the public eye, but not consistent in her views. Less persuasive? Professional reputation – affected after Benghazi and the email scandal? …Bernie Not clear if he will be able to have the power to persuade people in Washington, even if he has the power to persuade voters Perceived as not having a lot of prestige. People don’t know much about his professional reputation …Trump Extremely persuasive, so might actually be able to bargain as President However, extremely persuasive to voters, maybe not other politicians or foreign leaders Lacks professional reputation in Congress …Ted Cruz Not persuasive Terrible professional reputation – he was responsible for shutting down government


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