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Date Created: 04/14/16
3 Exam Study Guide for Environmental BiologyPart A Managing Biological Resources 1. Definitions for endangered and threatened species Endangered – one that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of it’s range Threatened – one that is likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range 2. About how many endangered species listed in US, and most abundant groups. 613 animals and 746 plants 3. What is the Tragedy of the Commons? How does it apply to species? Depletion and/or degradation of communal resources to which everyone has access but no one has ownership or a sense of responsibility. Selfish interests use or destroy more than their fair share 4. What is the species approach for maintaining biodiversity and what sorts of activities are used for it? Convention on international trade in endangered species Establishing protected areas, seed storage, monitoring biodiversity, incentives for conservation and sustainable us 5. Know the main points of the CITES Treaty and UN Conventions on Biodiversity. (goes with number 4) 6. What is stipulated in the Lacey Act? Prohibits transport of wild animals across state lines without a permit 7. Know the main parts of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Illegal for us to import or trade in any product made from an endangered species unless it is approved. Endangered species must be IDed and listed, must develop a recovery plan, prohibits federal agencies from funding or authorizing projects that jeopardized endangered species and their habitat. 8. Know the snail darter and spotted owl cases of the ESA Create a network of 133 owl conservation areas totaling nearly 6.4 million acres of federal land 9. What is the “God Squad”? 10. What is the habitat conservation plan part of the ESA? Landowners can harvest resources and build on land as long as there is a net gain for the species. If use part of the land, must set aside another part with increased restrictions. 11. What has been the result of 40 years of the ESA? What is the likely future of it? 14 species have been delisted because recovered, 23 have been downgraded to threatened, 9 listed species have become extinct, 93% have population increases 12. What are the positive aspects and limitations of zoos and captive breeding programs? They can keep the animals safe and help them breed to increase the population of the species 13. What is a genetic bottleneck and inbreeding depression? Genetic bottleneck is when there are genes of a different type mixed in with the other normal genes that help them to survive and that gets passed down but it gets bottlenecked out Inbreeding depression is the minimum viable population 14. What is a minimum viable population? Lowest population size of a species that can exist 15. What is the preserving ecosystem approach to maintaining biodiversity? Designing preserves to sustain the life of animals, like a national park. 16. Have preserved areas increased worldwide? no 17. What goes into designing a preserve? The size, including buffer zones 18. What are activities that can occur in different buffer zones of a preserve? No till crops, agroforestry in tropics, managed mixed age forest, leave old dead trees for regrowth in habitat 19. What goes into managing a preserve? Manipulate vegetation to get communities in a variety of successional stages Landuse Rangelands: 1. Rangelands about 1/3 of landuse worldwide and in US 2. Know the traits of plants and grazers in native grasslands/rangelands Nibblers – have small mouths (antelope) Browsers – feed on woody plants (giraffe) broad mouthed herbivores (cows) 3. Definition of an AMU Animal mouth unit 4. What are the effects of over grazing and how can it lead to desertification? Less desirable plants, hooves crushed soil, no plants decreased humidity Evaporation and transpiration from plants increase humidity which causes desrtification 5. History of US rangelands 6. What are the different methods for grazing cattle, which has the least impact on land? Continuous grazing – cattle go wherever they want Rotational and savory grazing – rotate cattle between pastures gives plants time to recover, more like natural grazing Rotational and savory grazing has the least impact on the land 7. What are riparian zones, why important and how does cattle grazing affect them? Areas of vegetation along stream banks, they are a source of water, high plant production, increased plant diversity, cover for fish and wildlife. When cattle is allowed on the land, they eat the plants which leaves soil and causes erosion along the stream banks 8. What is the Bureau of Land Management responsible for? What is multiple use? Recreation, mineral exploration, tourism, oil, maintaining water quality Multiple use is the multiple purposes that comes with the land management 9. How do grazing fees differ on private vs BLM land? Private grazing land costs almost $17 more than BLM land. 10. What are the sides of the debate over grazing fees? What is Acow welfare@? There is a conservationist side and the ranchers side. 11. Ways to make grazing lands more sustainable Land NOT the cattle is the resource. No grazing in riparian areas or on land in poor condition Raising grazing fees to fair market value and allow competitive bidding for all grazing permits Allow groups to purchase permits and not use land for grazing Forest Lands: 1. About 1/3 of landuse Range and pasture, Forest and woodlands 2. Ecological values of forests Reduce soil erosion, Increase humidity in air, Global co2 and o2 cycles, Habitat for wildlife 3. Forestry terms (hardwoods, closed forest etc) Hard wood – broad leaf, more dense wood, used in furniture Softwoods – evergreen, coniferous, structural lumbar Closed forest – canopy touches Open forest – crowns of trees don’t touch Old growth > 500 years old Secondary growth – regrowth after logging 4. What are the main reasons for decline of rainforests, which is the biggest cause? Grazing/ ranching, Agriculture, Logging and fuelwood, Mining 5. What is the difference between Swidden Agriculture and “Slash and Burn”? Swidden agriculture is the old way of burning crops. They clear trees, burn the everything to release the nutrients, plant mixed variety of native crops and have a scatter harvest. Slash and burn is when they just take areas and cut them down before burning them, which is bad for the environment and causes erosion 6. Palm oil plantations 7. Ways to reduce rainforest lost Plant fast growing trees for fuelwood, cut and replant small patches, reduce demand for fuelwood (better stoves, don’t convert to charcoal 1 ), use mix culture agriculture to reduce pests, alternatives to mercury for extracting gold 8. What is Extractivism Renewable products 9. How does Debt for Nature Swap work? Developing countries owe in bond debt to more developed countries, little prospect in collecting debt, banks will sell bonds or 10 cents on the dollar to conservation organizations, then they offer to cancel the debt if the country sets aside preserves 10. US Forestrysteps and methods for harvesting timber Commercial logging, rotational periods 11. National Forest Service. What is the problem with managing for “multiple use”. 12. What are problems in US National Forests? Harvest is greater than the amount that regrows, air pollution and acid rain, decreased harvest on small private woodlands, fire suppression / management, exporting of raw logs, timber theft 13. Why do tax payers lose money on timber harvests in Nat Forests? 14. Ways to make timber harvest more sustainable Encourage cutting on small private woodlots, and decrease use of paper and increase paper recycling 15. Deer grazing and forests in PA Preserved Areas: 16. How are national parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas and national monuments supposed to be managed (i.e., how do they differ)? Move toward maintaining ecosystem at multiple levels, use ecological boundaries, maintain diversity and ecosystem function, monitor, have public and stakeholders involved. 17. What are threats to national parks? Overcrowding, encroaching development, introduced species, poachers 18. What are considered good approaches to managing national parks? Monitoring and cleanup of trash 19. What are the 2 different kinds of natural forest fires? Understory fires and standreplacing fires 20. What is the effect of fire suppression? It removes fuel from the fire, which would otherwise flair up 21. How did the 1998 forest fire affect Yellowstone? 22. How did introduction of wolves affect Yellowstone food web and ecosystem? Decrease in coyote population and decrease in elk population, increase in aspen/willow growth 23. Why are wetlands important? Habitat for wildlife, improve water quality, global nutrient cycles, reduce flooding, reduce shoreline erosion 24. What are the major causes of wetland loss? Draining for agriculture, levee for flood control, dredging for navigation channels, mining activities, pollution, and invasive wetland plants 25. Know the difference between wetland creation, restoration and treatment wetlands. Creation – conversion of a persistent upland or shallow water environment into a wetland by humans Restoration – return of a wetland from a disturbed or altered condition Treatment – wetland created by a upland habitat primarily for reducing pollutants 26. How is the Everglades ecosystem trying to be restored?
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