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Week 14 Notes

by: Grace Gibson

Week 14 Notes 4150

Grace Gibson
GPA 3.88

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These are the notes from lecture
Systems and Theories
Edwin Brainerd
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4150 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Systems and Theories in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/14/16
Development of Psychoanalysis   Freud’s place in history o “Psychoanalysis” and “Sigmund Freud” are known all over the world o Freud is recognizable to the general public o He was on the cover of Times magazine three times, once sixty years after his  death o He was recently revered on the 150th anniversary of his birth o Pivotal person in the history of civilization o Changed the way we think of ourselves  Three great shocks to the collective human ego according to Freud o Copernicus said the earth was not the center of the universe o Darwin said humans are not a distinctive species o Freud said unconscious forces rather than rational thought govern our lives  To give Freud a fair evaluation, you must remember four important points o Freud’s theory is the oldest theory currently taught in modern psychology  textbooks o Since Freud died in 1939, he has not been able to modify or change this theory  to incorporate new psychological discoveries or the changing Zeitgeist o Freud and his parents were strongly influenced by the Victorian Era when a  sizeable portion of the upper­middle class experienced high degrees of sexual  repression o Freud was in private practice and was interested primarily in abnormal behavior  and how to cure it  Psychoanalysis o Not a school of thought directly comparable to the others o Distinct from the mainstream o Not a true science o Arose from medicine and psychiatry o Subject matter is abnormal behavior o Primary method is clinical introspection o Deals with the unconscious Antecedent Influences on Psychoanalysis   Theories of the unconscious mind: philosophical speculation o Leibnitz’s monads o Friedrich Herbart said ideas may be unconscious and must rise above the limen  into consciousness o Fechner  Also used threshold concept  Mind: iceberg analogy  “Elements of Psychophysics” influenced psychophysics as well as  experimental psychology with concept such as the absolute threshold  Freud quoted from Fechner and took ideas from him such as the pleasure principle, psychic energy, and importance of aggression  o In 1880s Europe the ideas about the unconscious were popular and widespread  in Europe o Freud claimed he did not originate the unconscious, only a way to scientifically  study it  Ideas about psychopathology gradually moved to more humane methods from some  highly barbaric early views o More humane treatments o Vives: spanish scholar o Pinel: frenchman  o Concomitant changes in United States with Dorothea Dix and Benjamin Rush  The Emmanuel Church Healing Movement o Focus on talk therapy increased salience of psychological causes of mental  illness to both general public and therapeutic community o Elwood Worcester was the originator  o He was the rector of Emmanuel Church in Boston, MA o He had a PhD in philosophy and psychology from the University of Leipzig and  studied under Wundt o There were talk therapy sessions, both individual and group  Hypnosis advanced the emerging focus on psychological causes of mental illness o Mesmer increased interest in hypnosis but did much damage because of the  side­show antics o There was a purple robe, incense, mystic approach o Mesmer was a Viennese physician o Brain and Martin Charcot make hypnosis respectable again o Janet used hypnosis as a treatment for hysteria and other mental conditions  Freud read all of Darwin’s works and was tremendously influenced by his writings o Well read copies of all of Darwin’s works were found in Freud’s library o Ideas from Darwin  Unconscious mental processes  Unconscious mental conflicts  The significance of dreams  The hidden symbolism of certain behavioral symptoms  The importance of sexual arousal and the sex drive  Notion of continuity in emotional behavior from childhood to adulthood  Humans are driven by biological forces of love and hunger  Freud and neurotic upper­middle­class women were more sexually inhibited


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