Developmental Notes Week 10
Developmental Notes Week 10 PSYC 3120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Chapter 16- Middle Adulthood: Social and Personality Development 4/12/16 Societal Changes • Childbirth in 30’s-40’s • Second careers • Early retirement – no retirement • Normative-Crisis Model: people go through stages and how they approach life depends on the stage of life they are in o Stage models o Criticism à Outdated? o Rigid gender roles • Life Events Model: timing of events is important o Timing of events (not just age) o What they are engaged in • Generativity vs. Stagnation o Erik Erikson § Stage Theory § Focused on “crisis” § Generativity vs. Stagnation § Perception is important o Stagnation § Focus on trivial aspects of life o Generativity § Contributions: • Biological • Parental • Work • Cultural § Concern for the next generation • George Valliant o Another crisis theory o Ages 45-55 o “Keeping the meaning vs. rigidity” o Accept imperfection in self and others o Rigidity = isolation • Levinson’s Seasons of Life o Early Adulthood § “The Dream” § Enact plans for achieving goals § Settle down in their 30’s o Middle Adulthood (40-45) § Midlife transition: time of questioning • Finite nature of life • First signs of aging • Doubt value of accomplishments § Midlife crisis • Uncertainty and indecision about direction of their life • Desire to correct past mistakes • Future depends on resolution of midlife crisis § Criticisms of Levinson • Fact or myth? o Only interviewed men and only some reported having a midlife crisis • Effect of pop culture • Social Clock for Women o Ravenna Helson o Life Events Model o Social flock: psychological timepiece that records the major milestones in people’s lives o Time of continued psychological growth o Longitudinal study of female college graduates of the 60s § Typical feminine behavior (21-27) § Positive personality changes whether focused on career or family • Stability vs. Change o Change § Stage theorists, such as Erikson and Levinson § Suggest that we change a lot over our lifetime o Stable § Trait theorists, such as Costa & McCrae § How you are when you’re younger is pretty much how you are when you’re older • Costa and McCrae o The Big Five – stable over time!! o OCEAN § Openness to experience: interested in trying new things, very creative § Conscientiousness: attention to detail and how things happen § Extraversion: very friendly and outgoing, get energy from being with people § Agreeableness: flexible with different approaches to things § Neuroticism: someone who tends to worry and has problems with change Work and Careers in Middle Adulthood • Greatest productivity and satisfaction • Burnout o Highly trained professionals o Helping professions • Unemployment o Financial and psychological effects • Changing careers • Stereotypes of older workers may lead to age discrimination • However, older workers… o Less absenteeism o More reliable o Hold job longer o More willing to learn new skills Changes in the Family • Empty Nest Syndrome o Sadness from children leaving home • Boomerang Children o Children in 20s and 30s return home • Sandwich Generation o Between raising children and caring for parents Guest Speaker- Mary • Grew up in multiple states in the South • Tennessee Tech- then University of Alabama in Huntsville • Been with Army since 1989- one example, designing weapon systems • Manages 150 rocket scientists • Mother is cellist, father is a nuclear physicist o Been to The Bluebird in Nashville o Rocket scientists by day and musicians by night • Ambitious and driven • Burnout o About 2 years ago she started paying attention to her health- exercising, eating right, etc. (she’s 47 now) • Going to Africa in June for 2 weeks to do water projects • Empty Nest was hard- one daughter, divorced, hangs out with dog • Advice for us – networking, focus on people skills, “disagree agreeably” Chapter 17- Late Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development 4/14/16 U.S. Demographics • 1 in 8 are over 65 • By 2050 = 25% • Oldest old (age 85 and over) o Fastest growing o Doubled in the last 2 decades o Still increasing Ageism • Prejudice and discrimination of older people o Behavioral interpretations o Negative attitudes about competence and attractiveness o Job discrimination o Elderspeak: similar to baby talk but for old people • Gender double standard continues o Older women- unflattering terms o Aging men- maturity that enhances their status Aging Theories • Programmed Theories o DNA has built-in limit for reproduction of cell § Telomeres o Hormones o Immune system • Wear-and-Tear Theories o Mechanical functions of body wear out o Free radicals Factors in Life Expectancy (let’s move to Hawaii à highest life expectancy) • Positive o Female o Moderate to light drinker o Exercise o Sexual relations o Education o Rural living o Marriage o Friends o Easy-going personality • Negative o Male o Heavy drinker o Sedentary life or job o Family history of heart disease, diabetes or breast cancer o Urban o Never married or divorced o Aggressive and hostile personality Fountain of youth? • Doesn’t actually exist • Telomere therapy • Reducing free radicals with antioxidant drugs • Restricting calories – tried it with mice • Replacing worn out organs Physical Disorders • Osteoporosis • Arthritis • Hypertension Deadly Disorders • Due to long-term behavior patterns! • Heart disease o Atherosclerosis: a cholesterol/triglyceride plaque forms (blocks) o Hypertension o Stroke • Cancer o Lung o Colon Psychological Health Problems • Major depression • Drug induced psychosis • Dementia (many types) o Epilepsy o HIV o MS o Post-brain irradiation o Alcohol related dementia o Hydrocephalus o Vascular Dementia o Parkinson’s Disease o Alzheimer’s Disease § Symptoms: • Unusual forgetfulness • Memories effected • Total confusion • Lose voluntary control of muscles • Behavioral disturbances § Causes: • Beta amyloid precursor • Don’t know what causes it in the first place o Genetics o Non-genetic factors increase susceptibility o Viruses? Dysfunctions of immune system? § Treatment: • No cure • Medications o Anti-inflammatory drugs o Preservation of abilities • Caregiving o Independent living o Financial management o Treatment Consent
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