Bio 1306 Week 8 Notes
Bio 1306 Week 8 Notes Bio 1306
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GEOL 1313 - 002
Diana Hernandez Vega
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Thursday April 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/14/16
Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe 4/4/16 & 4/6/16 Starting with Chapter 23- Animals Muscular System Provides movement to the body and adaptations for locomotion Nervous System The result of adaptations to locomotory systems that drive evolution of control mechanisms and sensory functions Cephalization The concentration of sensory apparati at one end of the animal. It leads to bilateral symmetry. Developmental Sequence in Animals Cleavage Zygote divides mitotically (2 cell stage, then 4, then 8…) Blastula Forms “Hollow Ball Stage”. Is fluid-filled, cells are pushed to the sides and the inside is the blastocoel. Gastrula Stage Only for animals more complex than a sponge. On the blastula surface, cells divide and push their way to the inside of the blastula forming a depression and then a cavity that opens to the outside. Archenteron The cavity that becomes the inside of the digestive system of the animal Blastopore The hole to the outside Endoderm Embryonic The wall of the archenteron. Will produce adult tissues/organs associated with the digestive system. Tissue Ectoderm Embryonic The outside surface of the old blastula. Will produce Tissue tissues/organs associated with the outside layers of cells of the organism. *Phylum Cnidaria is an example of a group whose organs are derived from endoderm/ectoderm/ Mesoderm Embryonic Embryonic tissue type that develops in the gastrula stage Tissue between the endoderm and ectoderm. (Ex: flatworms) Diploblastic An organism that only has 2 types of embryonic tissues. Triploblastic An organism that has 3 types of embryonic tissues. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe 4/4/16 & 4/6/16 Coelom A body cavity that more complex animals have. Provides a space between the gut tube and the body wall. It also facilitates locomotion without putting direct physical pressure on the gut contents. Reproduction in Animals External Fertilization Gametes are released into the environment and the male gametes somehow find the female gametes and fertilize. Internal Fertilization A package of sperm is placed in the environment for the a) With female to pick up. Or a package of sperm is handed to a spermatophores female who places it inside herself. (Ex: salamanders, scorpions) b) With an For copulation introminent organ Use of larval stages in Animals Larval Stage Between embryo and adult. Different morphology niche than the adult form. Happens by hormones of metamorphosis. The adult stage is ready for sexual reproduction. Free living larvae Are aquatic, internal parasites. Different larval stages call for different hosts. Direct Development Alternative to having an aquatic larval stage. The larval stage is passed as an embryo inside an “egg.” Egg Use Oviparity Mature fertilized eggs are deposited in the environment where the embryo development is completed. Usually has enough energy to hatch. Ovoviparity Fertilized eggs are equipped with enough stored energy to (Lechitotrophy) complete embryonic development but the eggs are inside the female until they’re ready to hatch. Viviparity Fertilized eggs develop into the hatching stage. The embryos (Metrotrophy) are inside the mom but the food source is provided by her until the embryos are born alive. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe 4/4/16 & 4/6/16 Porifera- Phylum Asymmetrical, body is a vase shaped aggregation of cells around a water flow canal system. Sponge Oscolum: the hole at the top, where the water goes out Spongocoel: cavity on the inside Epidermis: perforated for water intake Choanocytes These flagellated cells create a flow from the outside to the inside. Porocytes: pore cells Amoebocytes: wondering amoeboid cells that. Both capture food. Mesoglea Jelly-like acellular (non-living) material between the cells in the wall of the sponge. Spicules Endoskeletal elements in the jelly matrix Intracellular Digestion When amoeboid cells capture food particles and digest it or transfer it to other cells in the body. Sessile Adult sponges that don’t move and are usually attached to a substrate. If damaged, amoebocytes transform to heal it. Ctenophores- Phylum Marine carnivores that are usually zooplankton. They have a Comb jellies, sea walnuts, complete digestive system (they have both: a mouth and an etc. anus). Hox genes Developmental genes that govern large parts of the body plan of animals. Ctenophores don’t have hox genes. Placozoans- Phylum Non-parasitic animals that descended from animals with a nervous system but since then they have lost it. Cnidaria- Phylum Marine carnivores that are radially symmetrical and have hox Anemones, jellyfish, coral, genes. Body plants: polyp and medusa. hydras, siphonophores Gastrovascular cavity Digestive system. There’s a bag with a mouth opening used to digest ingested food (diploblastic). Epidermis is made of ectoderm and the jelly-like matrix is mesoglea tissue. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe 4/4/16 & 4/6/16 Nerve Nets Present made of neurons. Brain is absent. Neurons: carry electrical impulses over their cell surfaces. Made of a cell body and an axon. Dendrites: carry electrical impulses toward the cell body Axon: carries electrical impulses away from the cell body Nerve: cluster of axons into a cable Polyp Stage Sessile. Uses asexual reproduction by budding or fragmentation. Budding: miniature adult forms off the side of the body Fragmentation: pieces of the body break off and grow into an adult Medusa Stage Motile. Uses sexual reproduction. Gonochoristic (bisexual)- male/female. The zygotes swim and disperse. Form is dominant in jellyfish. Cnidocytes: specialized epidermal cells used for feeding and defense. Nematocysts: Intracellular structures used for feeding and defense. Some are sticky and other inject a paralyzing toxin. Protostome Group First Mouth The blastopore develops into the mouth opening. Protostomes Are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomate. Ganglion A cluster of nerve body cells at the head end of the animal. 1) Lophotrocozoans Consists of the Ectoprocts, Bronchiopods, & Phoronids. They have a lophophore: tentacles that surround the mouth used for filter feeding Plathyhelmenthes (flatworms) Triploblastic. No coelom present. The gastrovascular cavity is a one-hole sac. Planarians They have a pharynx used for feeding. Are scavengers, predators, and marine. Missing circulatory system. Hermaphroditic, use internal fertilization. Their excretory Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Liebe 4/4/16 & 4/6/16 system is based on flame cells that remove wastes by filtration selective reabsorption, and excretion. Flukes Parasitic Cestodes Parasitic tapeworms. *Scolex: head with suckers and hooks. *Proglottids: segments increasing in size Rotifera Important zooplankton in freshwater ecosystems. Some have pathogenesis. When the environment is poor, males are produced for genetic variability. Ribbon Worms Marine animals with a closed circulatory system. First to have hemoglobin which is protein that picks up oxygen where there is too much and drops it off where there is not enough. They also have a complete digestive system (mouth and anus) and are carnivores. Coelomic activity: rhynchocoel is homologous to a head and the proboscis is used for feeding.
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